13th Australian Weeds Conference
13th Australian Weeds Conference proceedings: weeds 'threats now and forever'

Edited by H. Spafford Jacob, J. Dodd and J.H. Moore

 

Published in 2002 by Plant Protection Society of WA., soft cover, 764 pages - available as book or CD-ROM (PDF)

 

Price $A20.00 plus postage $A13.50 for book [up to 3 kg] or $A7.00 for CD-ROM within Australia, overseas postage please request a quote

 

ISBN 0958111103 or ISBN 9780958111102

Organized by the Plant Protection Society of Western Australia Inc. for the Council of Australian Weed Science Societies at The Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002.

 

  • Papers and proceedings
  • Table of contents

Papers cover: Weed management, ecology and economics, weed modelling, invasion and eradication, biological control, biology and genetics, novel techniques, mapping, herbicide resistance, education, training and community links, policy and planning, and integrated weed management.

Table of contents

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS

Why are there so few weeds? Tim Low

1

The highest form of generalship? A review of weed strategies. W. Mark Lonsdale

7

Human dimensions of integrated weed management. David Pannell

8

INDUSTRY SPEAKERS

Community and government working together for effective weed management – the Eastern Hills case study. Loretta Bean and Linda Kirchner

16

Weeds officers training and education program: an innovative and successful approach. Reg Kidd, George Hammond, Bryson Rees and Roger Smith

22

A Weeds Officer’s perspective on training. Bryson Rees

25

Nursery and garden industry of Australia: garden escapees that are serious environmental weeds. Hazel E. Dempster

27

Future weed threats to Western Australian agriculture. Craig Brown

33

Weeds in horticulture. David Anderson

33

Weeds in the Australian plantation industry. Kym Sandover

34

WEED MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY: FORESTRY AND TREE CROPPING

Impacts of broadscale weed control and fertilisation at establishment on survival and growth of second rotation pines. Ian Dumbrell, John McGrath and Ray Fremlin

35

Long-term growth response to patterns of weed control in radiata pine. Sue M. Shaw, Julian P. Mattay and Paul R. Adams

39

Effects of soil water and nitrogen on grass suppression of young Eucalyptus globulus. Paul Adams, Phillip Smethurst, Chris Beadle and Neville Mendham

43

Alien tree invasions in South Africa: pulling together pieces of the puzzle from natural experiments. David M. Richardson and Mathieu Rouget

47

Weed risk assessment of twenty plant species used for revegetation or farm forestry in South Australia. Rachel L. Melland and John G. Virtue

51

WEED MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY: CROPPING

Seed box survey of field crops in Victoria during 1996 and 1997. Michael R. Moerkerk

55

Weed seed contamination in cereal and pulse crops. Sharon Roya Niknam, Michael Moerkerk and Roger Cousens

59

Surveys of weeds in Victorian farming systems. Sharon Roya Niknam, Michael Moerkerk and Roger Cousens

62

The effect of summer weed management on subsequent grain yield and quality. Graham M. Fromm and Vanessa L. Grieger

63

Strategic nitrogen application for weed suppression in wheat. Eric Koetz, Deirdre Lemerle, Tony Good and Steve Sutherland

67

Towards the production of allelopathic cultivars for low input rice farming systems. Sophea Pheng, Steve Adkins, Maria Olofsdotter, Harry Nesbit and Gary Jahn

71

A preliminary investigation into the effects of night cultivation and tillage method on weed emergence. Greg P. Stockings, Robin S. Jessop and Brian M. Sindel

75

Critical period of Cyperus iria L. competition in transplanted rice. Harmohinder S. Dhammu and Kulwant S. Sandhu

79

Lifecycle studies on Malvaceae weeds in cotton farming systems. Stephen B. Johnson, Brian M. Sindel and Graham W. Charles

83

Can the timely use of tillage reduce the prevalence of perennial weeds? A case study on the native weed Polymeria longifolia in cotton farming systems. Stephen B. Johnson, Brian M. Sindel and Robin S. Jessop

83

Weed and nitrogen management for direct seeded low land rice. D. Kalyanasundaram, S.R. Vinodkumar and G. Kuppuswamy

84

Plantback to susceptible crops following application of picloram + triclopyr in north-eastern Australian fallow. Robert A. Annetts, Karen J. Kennedy and Christopher O. Love

87

Emergence of Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle) is favoured under zero tillage farming systems. Michael Widderick, Brian Sindel and Steve Walker

91

WEED MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY: NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS

The enemy within: native environmental weeds of Western Australia. Greg Keighery

93

Weeds on granite outcrops in temperate Australia, South Africa and the USA. Stephen D. Hopper

96

A weed risk minimisation strategy for the European olive, Olea europaea ssp. europaea, in Tasmania. Cindy S.T. Hanson

100

The capacity of lantana (Lantana camara L.) to displace native vegetation. Daniel H. Stock and Clyde H. Wild

104

An audit system to account for birds and mammals utilising weeds species. Suzanne Lawrie

108

Controlling Sparaxis bulbifera (L.) Ker Gawl. invading a clay based wetland on the Swan Coastal. Plain. Kate Brown and Kris Brooks

112

The role of boneseed in modifying native seedling recruitment in New Zealand coastal communities. Kate McAlpine and Susan Timmins

112

Control of bridal creeper Asparagus asparagoides on Kings Park Scarp and limiting factors on its growth and spread. Kathy Meney, Bob Dixon and Peter Moonie

113

Patterns of native and exotic species establishment in banksia woodland after fire. María A. Pérez-Fernández, Byron B. Lamont and Philip K. Groom

117

Natural propagation of orange buddleia (Buddleja madagascariensis Lamarck) in eastern Australia. Daniel H. Stock and Clyde H. Wild

120

WEED MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY: AQUATIC SYSTEMS

New aquatic weed threats in northern Victoria. Lalith Gunasekera, Kevin Krake and Patrick Pigott

124

Egeria densa – an alien invasive plant responsible for the devegetation of New Zealand shallow lakes. Paul D. Champion

126

Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. (Japanese knotweed) – an underrated threat to riparian zones in Australia. Nigel Ainsworth and John Weiss

130

Reclaiming Botany Wetlands, Sydney through integrated management of Ludwigia peruviana. and other weeds. Nimal Chandrasena, Leonard Pinto and Robyn Sim

134

Keeping the Northern Territory free of alligator weed. Bertrand Lukitsch and Lalith Gunasekera

138

Successful alligator weed management in Victoria. Lalith Gunasekera, Julio Bonilla and Patrick Pigott

140

Assessment of alien invasive aquatic weeds in the UK. Sarah Clarke and Jonathan R. Newman

142

WEED MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY: PASTURES

Effect of herbicide treatment on the productivity of some annual pasture legumes. Clinton K. Revell

146

Gap ecology of Vulpia spp. in perennial pastures. Katherine N. Tozer, David F. Chapman, Paul E. Quigley and Peter M. Dowling

150

Lucerne production following residual herbicides used in northern cropping systems. John Churchett, Steve Walker and David Lloyd

153

Verdict 520 controls Erodium spp. in pasture, but be careful of the species, rate and state. Gregory S. Wells

156

Control of weeds using an experimental blanket wiper. Brad J. Rayner and John R. Peirce

158

Effect of early application of bromoxynil on the population dynamics of a regenerating pasture species mixture. Anyou Liu and Clinton Revell

161

WEED MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY: TROPICS

Integrated management of Mimosa pigra. Quentin Paynter and Grant J. Flanagan

165

Is aerial control of bellyache bush effective? Joseph Vitelli and Barbara Madigan

169

Pond apple – are the endangered cassowary and feral pig helping this weed to invade. Queensland’s Wet Tropics? Melissa Setter, Matt Bradford, Bill Dorney, Ben Lynes, Jim Mitchell, Stephen Setter. and David Westcott

173

Research, education and services of the Tropical and Subtropical Weeds Research Unit, University of Queensland. Steve W. Adkins and Mary F. Paterson

177

The impact of the rust fungus Maravalia cryptostegiae on three rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora) populations in tropical Queensland. Wayne Vogler and Andrea Lindsay

180

WEED MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES

Taxonomic patterns in the naturalisation rate of plant species in New Zealand. Richard P. Duncan and Peter A. Williams

183

Internet surveillance – new web search and response application is a valuable biosecurity tool. Margaret J. Rotstein, Sandra G. Lloyd, A.L. Fowler and Ronald E. Stinner

186

How often to search for new weeds. Susan Timmins, Simon Harris and Jennifer Brown

189

Weed warning from downunder – the weed potential of selected South African plants in cultivation in California. Roderick P. Randall and Sandra G. (Sandy) Lloyd

192

Getting in early: a national approach to anticipating, detecting and managing potential new weeds in Australia. Paul Pheloung

196

WEED MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY: HORTICULTURE

Weed management in pyrethrum. Ian L. Macleod, Phillip R. Frost and Tim Groom

200

Weed management in transplanted and direct-seeded brassicas. Ian L. Macleod and Phillip R. Frost

200

Improved management of residual herbicides. Phillip Frost, Ian Macleod, Philip Brown, John Paul Cumming and Richard Doyle

201

Dimethenamid-p – a new selective herbicide for Australian horticulture. Ian L. Macleod and Phillip R. Frost

204

Evaluation of new herbicides in carrot crops. Ian L. Macleod and Phillip R. Frost

206

Weed management in capsicums and chillies. Ian L. Macleod and Phillip R. Frost

206

Improved management of blackberry nightshade in processing tomatoes. Ian L. Macleod, Greg Barnes and Phillip R. Frost

207

Strategies for controlling weeds in New Zealand apple orchards. Kerry C. Harrington, M. Jennifer Hartley, Anis Rahman and Trevor K. James

208

A survey of Apiaceae weeds in pyrethrum fields and an assessment of factors controlling the germination of Torilis nodosa and Anthriscus caucalis. Richard Rawnsley, Peter Lane, Phil Brown and Tim Groom

212

Going organic: a study of weed management in an intensive organic vegetable production system. Andrew Bishop, Jason Dennis, Julia French and Phillip Gardam

218

Halting the sale and distribution of pest plants: a proven collaborative model for change management. C. Jack Craw

222

Control of Oxalis corniculata in turf. Jyri Kaapro

225

Bridal creeper – a serious weed of citrus orchards. Raelene Kwong, Kerry Roberts and Henry Schneider

227

Towards ecologically based weed management systems in vineyards. R.D. Flores Vargas and G.W. O’Hara

228

MODELLING

Comparing Roundup Ready and triazine tolerant canola in crop rotations accounting for variable conditions. Art Diggle, Patrick Smith, Paul Neve and Felicity Flugge

232

Multi-species RIM: a bio-economic model for the integrated management of coexisting annual ryegrass and wild radish. Marta Monjardino, David J. Pannell and Stephen Powles

236

Validating ryegrass RIM using data from IWM field trials. Alister Draper and William Roy

240

4SPaM: a process-based and weather-driven population model for managing weeds in temperate pastures. Darren J. Kriticos, Peter M. Dowling, Warren McG. King, Andrew W. Sheppard and. Randall E. Jones

244

Modelling the population interactions between the crown weevil Mogulones larvatus and its host plant Echium plantagineum. Andy Sheppard, Mark Rees, Matthew Smyth, Karl Grigulis and Yvonne Buckley

248

WEEDEM: a user-friendly software package for predicting annual ryegrass and wild radish emergence David Archer, James Eklund, Michael Walsh and Frank Forcella

252

Using models to explore invasion dynamics and control of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum). Yvonne M. Buckley, David T. Briese and Mark Rees

254

A relative invasion threat model for European olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea) in the Clare Valley, South Australia. Neville D. Crossman

255

A modelling approach to understanding environmental modification of seed dormancy in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). Amanda J. Ellery, Andrew D. Moore and Ross Chapman

259

Weed seedling emergence modelling: converting observations into equations for WeedEm. Frank Forcella, Michael Walsh, David Archer, Sally Peltzer, Roger Cousens, Ross Chapman,. Robert Gallagher and Stephen Powles

260

Architectural responses of intra- and inter-species plant-plant interactions. Shiv Kumar, Jim Hanan and Steve Adkins

261

The development of a wild oat simulation model for APSIM. Jeremy P.M. Whish, Peter S. Carberry, Michael J. Robertson and Patrick Smith

262

Towards a process based emergence model for wild radish. Ken Young, Darren Kriticos and Robert Gallagher

266

INVASIONS AND ERADICATIONS

The Branched Broomrape Eradication Program: methodologies, problems encountered and lessons learnt. Paul Jupp, Philip Warren and Nick Secomb

270

Herbicide and cropping trials relevant to the eradication of branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa). in South Australia. John M. Matthews

274

Small-seeded dodder (Cuscuta planiflora Ten.), a new weed threat to Australian agriculture. Rachael A. Pratt

276

The biology and control of chincherinchee (Ornithogalum thyrsoides Jacq.). John H. Moore

280

Integrated management of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) in Pacific Northwest dryland cropping systems. Frank L. Young, Dan Ball, Donn Thill, Joseph P. Yenish and J. Richard Alldredge

284

Taurian thistle in Australia – a candidate for eradication? R.H. Groves, M. Moerkerk, D. Blakey and P.H.R. Moore

287

Purple loosestrife eradication in Alberta. Shaffeek Ali

288

Limnocharis flava, Mikania micrantha and Clidemia hirta detected in north Queensland: are these weeds lurking at a site near you? Barbara M. Waterhouse and Louise Hucks

289

Grapple plant (Harpagophytum procumbens (Burch.) DC. ex Meissn., Pedaliaceae) is a menacing new weed threat to Australia and the United States. Sandra G. (Sandy) Lloyd and Roderick P. Randall

290

Potential hosts of branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa L.) in Australia. John Virtue, Che DeDear, Anna Traeger, Frank Anderson and Brett Broomell

292

SUCCESSFUL ERADICATIONS WORKSHOP

Eradication of the exotic weeds Helenium amarum (Rafin) H.L. and Eupatorium serotinum Michx. from south-eastern Queensland. A.J. Tomley and F.D. Panetta

293

Case history of the eradication of fringed spider flower, Cleome rutidosperma DC. Andrew Mitchell and Michael Schmid

297

Eradication of kochia (Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J.Scott, Chenopodiaceae) in Western Australia. Jonathan Dodd and Roderick P. Randall

300

Eradication case history, Hieracium pilosella L. ssp. nigrescens (Fr.) Nägeli & Peter in Tasmania. T. Rudman and C. Goninon

304

Some general principles for weed eradication programs. R.H. Groves and F.D. Panetta

307

HERBICIDES

Butafenacil – a new complimentary premix partner for triasulfuron or glyphosate for the enhanced knockdown and residual control of weeds in broadacre cropping situations. Brett A. Davies

311

Flumioxazin – A new knockdown spike herbicide for the Australian market. David Howey

315

The use of carfentrazone-ethyl to aid in the knockdown of difficult to control broad leaved weeds. Gordon Cumming

318

Distribution of the herbicides clomazone and pendimethalin in soils, and implications for activity and persistence. John Paul Cumming, Philip H. Brown, Richard B. Doyle and Philip Frost

321

Low temperatures reduce glufosinate efficacy against Raphanus raphanistrum L. and Sisymbrium orientale L. Anuja R. Kumaratilake, Deborah F. Lorraine-Colwill, and Christopher Preston

325

Persistence of ALS inhibiting (Group B) herbicides in alkaline soils of south eastern Australia. Katherine Hollaway, Dianne Noy and Nigel Wilhelm

329

Enhanced degradation of propyzamide after repeated application in orchards. Hilde Eelen, Robert Bulcke and Jean Rouchaud

333

The control of Paspalum dilatatum in Cynodon dactylon sports turf. Matthew Bywater

337

Broadstrike Herbicide spot spray for pasture weeds in hard-to-spray areas. Daniel G.H. Dixon

339

Adjuvants for use with Select herbicide and mixtures with atrazine. David Howey and Mark Sumner

341

Participatory development of weed management strategies in maize based cropping systems of Kenya. G.N. Kibata, J.M. Maina, E.G. Thuranira, F.J. Musembi, G. Nyanyu, J.G.N. Muthamia,. J.O. Okuro, I. Mutura, S. Amboga, A.N. Micheni, F. Mureithi, D. Overfield and P.J. Terry

343

Trifloxysulfuron-sodium: a new post-emergence herbicide for use in Australian cotton and sugarcane. Peter Mesch, Stott Howard and Peter O’Connell

345

The tolerance of canola to herbicides. John Moore

348

A low-rate spike of Verdict 520 with Select Herbicide improves control of key grass weeds. Peter Nott

352

Impact of fallow management regimes on nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus L.) tubers in irrigable broadacre crops in central Queensland. Vikki Osten, Megan McCosker, Anne Sullivan and Jim Barnes

355

Safe recropping after Lontrel in winter crop systems in southern Australia. Gregory S. Wells

357

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS

Biological control of tropical weeds with Central and South American origin: current activities by CSIRO Entomology Mic Julien

361

Prospects for the biological control of bellyache bush, Jatropha gossypiifolia. Tim A. Heard, Richard R. Chan and Ricardo Segura

366

Challenges facing the successful management of widely distributed weeds: biological control of mesquite (Prosopis species). Rieks D. van Klinken, Gio Fichera, Rob Parr, Eric McCormick, Rob Cobon, Lyle Fleck,. Nathan March and John McMahon

370

Biological control of broad-leafed pasture weeds (Paterson’s curse, Onopordum and nodding thistles). What have we achieved and where to from here? Anthony Swirepik and Matthew Smyth

373

Review of the potential for biological control of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) based on surveys in the Mediterranean region. John K. Scott, Janine Vitou and Mireille Jourdan

377

Population development and impact of the bridal creeper leafhopper Zygina sp. in Western Australia. Kathryn L. Batchelor and Tim L. Woodburn

381

Spread, epidemic development and impact of the bridal creeper rust in Australia: summary of results. Louise Morin, Anthony J. Willis, Joel Armstrong and Darren Kriticos

385

Prospodium tuberculatum, lantana rust, a new agent released for the biocontrol of the woody shrub, Lantana camara. Allan J. Tomley and N. Riding

389

Field release and initial impact of groundsel bush rust in Australia. Allan J. Tomley and L. Willsher

391

A strategy for the biological control of blue heliotrope (Heliotropium amplexicaule). David Briese and Miguel Zapater

394

Sheep as biological control agents against St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.): factors affecting hypericin variation and hypericin tolerance. Christopher A. Bourke, Ian A. Southwell and Gwen M. Mayo

398

The leaf beetle, Crioceris sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biocontrol agent for bridal creeper in Australia. Kathryn L. Batchelor and Tim L. Woodburn

402

Weed seed predation in a low rainfall cropping zone of Western Australia: spatial variation of weed seed predation. Catherine Borger, David Minkey and Helen Spafford Jacob

403

Two seed-feeding beetles released in Queensland and Western Australia for the biological control of mesquite. Graham Donnelly

404

Impact of bitou tip moth, Comostolopsis germana, on bitou bush in New South Wales. Royce H. Holtkamp

405

Attempts to establish biological control agents for boneseed in Tasmania. John E. Ireson, Jamie T. Davies, Wade S. Chatterton and Richard J. Holloway

407

Biology of Stethynium sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) an egg parasitoid of Zygina sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Anna Joder, Helen Spafford Jacob, Kathryn Batchelor and Tim Woodburn

412

Progress towards successful biological control of Paterson’s curse, Echium plantagineum, in north east Victoria. T. Morley, D.A. McLaren, K. Roberts and J. Bonilla

412

Weed seed predation in a low rainfall cropping zone of Western Australia: ant survey. David Minkey and Helen Spafford Jacob

413

Predicting the potential distribution of the biological control agent blackberry leaf rust (Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz) Winter) and its impact on blackberry (Rubus fruticosus. L. agg.) in Victoria, Australia. J. Patrick Pigott, John Weiss, Franz Mahr and Kathy Evans

414

The latest insect biocontrol introduction against Parthenium hysterophorus in Queensland. Mariano Treviño, Fe Ambatali and Allan Tomley

414

Invasive willows in Australia: could they be targets for biological control? Jean Louis Sagliocco and Eligio Bruzzese

415

Biological control of blackberry: progress towards finding additional strains of the rust fungus, Phragmidium violaceum. John K. Scott, Mireille Jourdan and Katherine J. Evans

418

Longitarsus echii and its impact on Echium plantagineum (Paterson’s curse): the insect for the Mediterranean rainfall range of the weed? Matthew Smyth and Andy Sheppard

422

A new biological control project against stemless thistle (Onopordum acaulon) in Western Australia. Anthony Swirepik and Tim Woodburn

426

Establishment of the crown weevil Trichosirocalus horridus on a novel host, Cirsium vulgare in Western Australia. Tim Woodburn and Anthony Swirepik

430

Genetic diversity in the biological control process: Acacia nilotica as a test case. T.J. Wardill, K.D. Scott, G.C. Graham, J. Playford, M.A. Hannan-Jones, M. Zalucki and. B. Palmer

431

Will the red apion (Apion miniatum), a potential biocontrol agent for doublegee (Emex australis), establish in Australia? Paul B. Yeoh, Tim L. Woodburn and John K. Scott

432

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN WEED MANAGEMENT: ISSUES AND ETHICS

The evolution of weed science – an ethical perspective. Robert L. Zimdahl

436

COMPUTER ASSISTED WEED MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP

Computer Assisted Weed Management Workshop. John Moore

441

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Weed Warriors – increasing awareness of weeds in schools. Raelene Kwong

442

WEEDEM: turning information into action. Michael Walsh, Frank Forcella, David Archer and James Eklund

446

A new national approach for vocational weed management training. Richard J. Carter, Darren Bayley, Joanna Blunden and Bryson Rees

450

Community involvement in distributing the bridal creeper leafhopper Zygina sp., a biocontrol agent for bridal creeper, Asparagus asparagoides. Kathryn L. Batchelor and Tim L. Woodburn

453

Getting the message out: WEEDpak – a developing weed identification and management guide for the Australian cotton industry. Stephen B. Johnson, Graham W. Charles, Ingrid H. Christiansen, Susan M. Hazlewood, Sarah E. Kerlin, David G. Kelly, Leah MacKinnon, Grant N. Roberts, Anne C. Spora, Anne M. Sullivan, Ian. N. Taylor and John Watson

456

Extension aids for community based weed action groups. John Moore

457

An interactive identification key to the noxious weeds of Australia. Sheldon C. Navie, Steve W. Adkins and Geoff A. Norton

459

WEED BIOLOGY AND GENETICS

Molecular tools for the diagnosis of resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase in three grass weeds. Christophe Délye, Bruno Chauvel, Annick Matéjicek, Claire Chalopin, Séverine Michel, Jacques Gasquez and Henri Darmency

460

Competition between Australian and Spanish legumes growing in seven Australian soils. María A. Pérez-Fernández and Byron B. Lamont

464

A summary of dormancy in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seeds: dry after-ripening versus. imbibition in the dark. Kathryn J. Steadman

468

Affinities of Lantana camara in the Australia-Pacific Region. Leon J. Scott, Martin A. Hannan-Jones and Glenn C. Graham

471

Characterisation of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene of Raphanus raphanistrum L. and implications for weed management. Mui-Keng Tan and Richard W. Medd

475

Gene flow in Brassica napus on a landscape scale. Mary A. Rieger, Michael Lamond, Christopher Preston, Stephen B. Powles and. Richard T. Roush

479

NOVEL TECHNIQUES IN WEED MANAGEMENT

Cubic smoothing splines: a new method for analysing multi-site experiments. Richard W. Medd, Steve R. Walker and Brian R. Cullis

480

Weed control in lupins using a new spray shield and other row crop techniques. Mike Collins and Julie Roche

484

Eradication of grey willow (Salix cinerea) using herbicidal gel technology. Brian G. Ward, Ron F. Henzell and Graeme H. Pritchard

488

Aerial application of Magister in rice using the Bickley boom. Richard B. Warner, Bickley G. Thomas, Graham Barrett and Gordon Cumming

492

POLICY AND PLANNING

Biosecurity for Australia requires collective action from all stakeholders. Who should care about weeds and other pest incursions? Rob Delane and Sandra G. (Sandy) Lloyd

497

Planning for improved weed management in Victoria. David N. McKenzie

501

Assessing the financial implications of alternative investment options in weed control. John Weiss, Tereso A. Morfe and David McLaren

505

Victoria’s pest plant prioritisation process. John Weiss and David McLaren

509

Management of weeds in commercial timber plantations located in public drinking water source areas in Western Australia. Ray Fremlin

513

Statewide weed education: what works, and what doesn’t. Susan G. Donaldson and Claudene Wharton

517

Victorian serrated tussock management program. David Boyle

521

Management of weeds on state lands – a new policy and planning approach. Bruce J. Wilson, Glen W. Fisher, Jim Willmott and Salvo Vitelli

525

Problem + Research ¹ Weed Management Solution. Craig S. Walton, Clyde C. McGaw and Peter A. Mackey

528

WEED BIOLOGY

The ecology of saffron thistle in France and eastern Australia. Blair S. Grace, Andy W. Sheppard, Janine Vitou, Wal R.D.B. Whalley and Brian M. Sindel

529

Nassella trichotoma (Nees) Arechav.: seedling recruitment and survival in New Zealand. Shona Lamoureaux and Graeme Bourdôt

533

The effect of barley and Lolium rigidum plant densities on the biomass and spike density of the weed. Jordi Izquierdo, Jordi Recasens, César Fernández-Quintanilla and Gurjeet Gill

537

Predicting seedbank decay rates: the effects of field conditions on seed longevity and seedling recruitment in Echium plantagineum L. Andy Sheppard and Matthew Smyth

541

Invasion of indigenous vegetation in south-western Australia by Leptospermum laevigatum (Myrtaceae). Anya Lam and Eddie van Etten

545

Coolati or tambookie grass (Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf) – an introduced pasture grass with environmental weed potential. Sandra G. (Sandy) Lloyd and John Moore

549

Agro-ecology of Malva sp. in Western Australia. Pippa J. Michael, Julie A. Plummer and Kathryn J. Steadman

552

How fast do the seedbanks of five annual cropping weeds deplete in the absence of weed seed input? Sally C. Peltzer and Paul T. Matson

553

Effects of nitrogen, light and wet and dry heat treatments, on the germination of six perennial plant species from western Spain. María A. Pérez-Fernández, S. Rodríguez Echeverría, C.E. David Antonio and E. Calvo Magro

556

Effect of water supply on the germination of seven exotic and seven native species in Western Australia. María A. Pérez-Fernández, Byron B. Lamont, Anjanette L. Marwick and Wesley G. Lamont

560

Allelopathic responses of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on germination and seedling vigour in Sorghum vulgare L. and Cajanus cajan L. and control measures for the weed. G.P. Satsangi, J.N. Shrivastava, Sandhya Kumari and Nidhi Gangwar

564

Weeds threatening rehabilitation efforts on mine sites in the gold fields of Western Australia and. the Northern Territory: competition between Rumex vesicarius (Polygonaceae) and Australian native plant species and seedbank studies. Andrea Schatral and Joan M. Osborne

569

Seed quality and germination in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.). Janine Vitou and John K. Scott

570

WEED MAPPING AND CONTROL

Weed mapping in the Blue Mountains – the BlueSpace experience. Lynton J. Auld and Christopher K. Banffy

574

Mapping environmental weeds in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, using high resolution infrared aerial photography. Neville D. Crossman and Jacob Kochergen

579

Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA) with particular reference to invasive Australian species. Lesley Henderson

583

Strategic management of bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata (L.) T.Norl.). Jeff Thomas and Andrew Leys

586

Modelling the biological control of bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera: Asteraceae) by Mesoclanis polana (Tephritidae). Rachel M. Stuart, Darren J. Kriticos and Julian E. Ash

591

HERBICIDE RESISTANCE

Frequency of glyphosate resistance in herbicide resistant annual ryegrass populations. John M. Matthews

595

Regression of herbicide resistance in some populations of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.). John M. Matthews

597

Glyphosate resistance in northern New South Wales – a growing concern. Andrew Storrie and Tony Cook

601

The spread of herbicide resistant annual ryegrass pollen. Dawn Hawthorn-Jackson, Christopher Preston and Rob Davidson

604

Evolution of paraquat resistance in barley grass (Hordeum leporinum Link. and H. glaucum Steud.). Imam Hidayat, Mary A. Rieger and Christopher Preston

605

The ecological fitness of Amaranthus retroflexus and A. blitoides resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and atrazine. M. Sibony and B. Rubin

609

Glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaud. in Australia. Debrah F. Lorraine-Colwill, Angela M. Wakelin and Christopher Preston

613

Herbicide resistance in the northern grain region of Australia: developments in research from 1993 to present. C.C. O’Donnell, S.W. Adkins and S.R. Walker

617

Weeds at risk of developing herbicide resistance in the different cropping systems of the northern region. Steve Walker, Vikki Osten, Andrew Storrie, Geoff Robinson, Tony Cook and. Kathryn Galea

620

Recent herbicide resistance research in New Zealand. Kerry C. Harrington

622

Ecological and population genetics of herbicide resistance: where to now? Paul Neve and Stephen B. Powles

625

Cross resistance of diflufenican-resistant wild radish to picolinafen. Aik Cheam and Siew Lee

629

Amaranthus tuberculatus (Mq. ex DC) J.D.Sauer: potential for selection of glyphosate resistance. Ian A. Zelaya and Micheal D.K. Owen

630

Potential benefits and risks associated with the introduction of herbicide-resistant transgenic cotton in Israel. Hagai Yasuor, Gil Tsuk and Baruch Rubin

634

Pattern and molecular basis of resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides in two Amaranthus species. M. Sibony and B. Rubin

638

Differential sensitivity to glyphosate among biotypes of common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer). Reid J. Smeda and Christopher L. Schuster

642

Management of acetyl coA carboxylase inhibitor resistant wild oats in northern New South Wales. Andrew Storrie and Tony Cook

643

Experiences with glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) in the eastern United States. Mark VanGessel, Barbara Scott, and Quintin Johnson

644

HERBICIDE RESISTANCE SYMPOSIUM

Herbicide resistance – Australia vs. the rest of the world. Ian M. Heap

645

Impact of herbicide resistant crops in the Americas – a southern prospective. Ford L. Baldwin and Tomilea L. Baldwin

650

Impact of herbicide resistant crops in North America – a northern perspective. Micheal D.K. Owen and Ian A. Zelaya

655

Experience with herbicide resistance in Europe: global implications. Stephen R. Moss

660

Common mechanisms endowing herbicide resistance in weeds. Christopher Preston

666

How the agribusiness industry can respond to herbicide resistance in weeds. Peter Boutsalis

675

Western Australian agronomic research and development for resistance management. Michael Walsh

677

What Australian growers will adopt in managing herbicide resistance. Rick S. Llewellyn

680

COMMUNITY LINKS FOR SUCCESSFUL WEED MANAGEMENT

Weeds or wildflowers. Hazel E. Dempster

685

Weed control on the public-private land interface in Victoria – the ‘Good Neighbour Program’. Leigh C. Dennis

689

An integrated weed management strategy for Serpentine-Jarrahdale. Brett Dunn

693

Caring for Country: the rapidly developing formalised structure for land management on Aboriginal lands of the Top End. Michael Storrs, Mark Ashley and Matthew Brown

697

Enhancement of biological control of bridal creeper by using community as a resource. Tim L. Woodburn, Louise Morin, Kathryn L. Batchelor, Anthony Swirepik and. Joel Armstrong

701

How environmental weeds threaten bushland: ‘weeds or wildflowers’. Diane Matthews

704

INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT

Suppressing weeds in conservation farming. Deirdre Lemerle, Steve Sutherland, Eric Koetz and Alison Smith

705

Broadcast sowing, crop row spacing and crop density for the suppression of ryegrass in. wheat rotations. John Matthews

709

Competitiveness and persistence of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) in a wheat-lupin rotation. Abul Hashem and Nerys Wilkins

712

Impact of claying on grass weed management and profitability. John Blake and Sally Peltzer

716

Recent findings in physical and cultural weed control in Mediterranean Italy. Paolo Bàrberi and Anna-Camilla Moonen

720

Is continuous wheat a viable rotation option when challenged by herbicide resistant annual ryegrass populations? Alexandra Douglas

724

Integrated weed management (IWM) in perennial pasture using pasture and grazing management, herbicide strategies and biological control. R.K. Huwer, M.J. Neave, P.M. Dowling, W.M. Lonsdale, A.W. Sheppard, D.T. Briese and. D.L. Michalk

727

Weeds in systems with dryland cotton: a scoping study. Steve Walker, Vikki Osten, Ian Taylor and Anne Sullivan

731

WEED ECONOMICS

What are the future benefits of a change in the weed seedbank? Randall E. Jones, Oscar J. Cacho and Richard W. Medd

732

Managing risk: measuring the economic and other benefits of a herbicide dose strategy able to account for environmental variation. Thomas L. Nordblom, Randall E. Jones and Richard W. Medd

736

The economics of cultivation vs. herbicides vs. mulch control and cultivation under different tillage systems. Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh

740

Estimating economic damages of non-indigenous invasive weeds on recreation using three analytical approaches. Mark E. Eiswerth, Wayne S. Johnson, Jeanmarie Agapoff, Tim D. Darden and. Thomas R. Harris

744

Net economic benefits of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium L.) management. John R. Zimmerman, Mark E. Eiswerth, Loretta Singletary and Wayne S. Johnson

748

Distribution, economic impact and attitudes towards Chilean needlegrass (Nassella neesiana (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth) in Australia. David A. McLaren, Tereso A. Morfe and John Weiss

749

Benefit-cost analysis for biological control of Echium spp. (Paterson’s curse and related species) in Australia, 1972–2050. Thomas L. Nordblom, Matthew J. Smyth, Anthony Swirepik, Andrew W. Sheppard and. David T. Briese

753

AUTHORS’ INDEX

757

KEYWORD INDEX

760