14th Australian Weeds Conference
14th Australian Weeds Conference proceedings: weed management - balancing people, planet, profit

Edited by B.M. Sindel and S.B. Johnson

 

Published in 2004 by Weed Society of NSW, soft cover, 718 pages - available as book or CD-ROM (PDF)

 

Price $A77.00 plus $A13.50 postage for book [up to 3 kg] or $A7.00 for CD-ROM within Australia, overseas postage please request a quote

 

ISBN 0975248804 or ISBN 9780975248805

Organized by the Weed Society of New South Wales for the Council of Australian Weed Societies and held at The Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales on 6-9 September 2004

 

  • Papers and proceedings
  • Table of contents

Papers cover:

Biotechnology, plant introductions, plant eradications, detection and quarantine, cropping systems, rangeland systems, horticultural systems, Conservation and amenity systems, aquatic systems, chemical control, cultural control, biological control, herbicide resistance, invasion and spread, biology and ecology, modelling and economics, communication and adoption (agricultural), communication and adoption (amenity) and policy planning and regulation. There is an author index and a keyword index.

 

Table of contents

CAWS ORATION

Weed management at the border, at the garden fence and in the bush. R.H. Groves

1

KEYNOTE ADDRESSES

The age of weeds. Julian Cribb

10

Reflections on weeds and water – another NWI? Bobbie Brazil

13

PLENARY SESSION 1. BIOTECHNOLOGY: THE WAY FORWARD?

Australian attitudes to GM foods and crops. Craig Cormick

14

Global trends in ecological studies of GMOs. W.M. Lonsdale

18

Gene technology regulation in Australia: a framework for identifying, assessing and managing risks. Sue Meek

21

New frontiers in weed science: from transgenics to genomics. C. Neal Stewart, Jr.

22

PLENARY SESSION 2. PLANT INTRODUCTIONS: CAN WE DO A BETTER JOB?

Plant introductions – a grower’s view. Michael Cole

26

New perennial plant options needed to transform agriculture and manage salinity. Michael A. Ewing

27

Without expected benefits, is weed assessment a frustrating search for the wrong needle in the wrong haystack? Cheryl Kalisch Gordon

33

A South African perspective on plant introductions: motivations, problems and processes. Brian W. van Wilgen

39

Plant introductions in Australia: how can we resolve ‘weedy’ conflicts of interest? John G. Virtue, Sarita J. Bennett and Roderick P. Randall

42

PLENARY SESSION 3. MATTERS OF PRINCIPLE?

When is it optimal to eradicate a weed invasion? Oscar Cacho

49

Tackling invasive garden plants: a question of prevention. Andreas Glanznig

55

Eradication or control? Combating plants through a lump sum payment or on the instalment plan. Richard N. Mack and Sara K. Foster

56

‘To declare or not to declare? That is the question’. Craig Walton

62

PLENARY SESSION 4. MANAGING THE WEED RISK: TRADE, QUARANTINE AND BIOCONTROL?

Are we doing enough about early detection of weed species naturalising in Australia? John R. Hosking, Barbara M. Waterhouse and Peter A. Williams

68

Trade routes for commerce in plants or pathways for invasive species? The dualism of international commerce. Richard N. Mack

72

Biological control: managing risks or strangling progress? Rachel E. McFadyen

78

STUDENT PAPERS

How profitable are perennial pasture phases in Western Australian cropping systems? Graeme J. Doole, David J. Pannell, Clinton K. Revell and Amir Abadi

82

Towards a landscape-scale mechanistic weed risk model. Shaun Kolomeitz and Rieks van Klinken

88

How effective is host testing at predicting non-target impacts of weed biological control agents in Australia? Dianne B.J. Taylor, Tim A. Heard and Helen Spafford Jacob

91

Glyphosate resistance management in Roundup Ready® cotton. Jeff Werth, Christopher Preston, Grant Roberts and Ian Taylor

95

Recruitment and survival of Nassella trichotoma (Nees) Hack. (serrated tussock) on the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales. Tieneke F. Cowan, Brian M. Sindel and Robin S. Jessop

99

Seed dispersal of Orobanche ramosa L. in South Australia. Emma L. Crossfield, Jennifer Watling, John Virtue and John Matthews

100

The role of natural enemies in regulating populations of biocontrol agents on gorse (Ulex europaeus L.). Jamie T. Davies, John E. Ireson and Geoff R. Allen

101

Do all legumes pose the same weed risk? Development of a method to evaluate the risk of introduced legumes to temperate Australia. Jason Emms, John G. Virtue, Christopher Preston and William D. Bellotti

105

Genetic variation in the blackberry biocontrol agent Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz). Don R. Gomez, Katherine J. Evans, Eileen Scott, Paul Harvey, Jeanine Baker and Louise Morin

109

Effect of clipping and fertiliser addition on the feed value of Chilean needle grass (Nassella neesiana) during reproductive growth stages. Charles Grech, David McLaren, David Chapman and Brian M. Sindel

110

Potential for reduction of weed seed set through interference with phytohormones. Kerensa May Greenfield, Angela Wakelin, Stephen B. Powles and Christopher Preston

111

Characteristics of Sollya heterophylla Lindl.: a native weedy plant. Anna Traeger, Helen Spafford Jacob and Eligio Bruzzese

111

Assessing invasiveness of the potential sleeper weed Centaurea solstitialis L. Gregory Hay, José Facelli and F. Dane Panetta

112

Evolution or spread? The case of herbicide resistant Lactuca serriola L. in South Australia. Yi Qing Lu, Jeanine Baker and Christopher Preston

113

Effects of bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera (L.) Norl. ssp. rotundata (DC.) Norl.) invasion and control activities on coastal dune communities in New South Wales, Australia. Tanya Mason, Kris French and Mark Lonsdale

114

Invasion of bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) in a remnant vegetation patch: methodology and initial results. Kris Siderov and Nigel Ainsworth

115

Effect of competition on seed dispersal. M.S. Taghizadeh and R.D. Cousens

119

Delivery of best weed management practices for meat sheep producers. Mark G. Trotter, Brian M. Sindel, Jim M. Scott and Ian J. Reeve

120

CROPPING SYSTEMS

Agro-ecological approaches to managing weeds in wet direct-seeded rice Madonna C. Casimero and Leylani M. Juliano

121

Wheat, barley and triticale as mimic weeds for wild oat in chickpea studies. Bruce M. Haigh, Robin S. Jessop, Robert D. Murison and Warwick L. Felton

125

The effect of summer weed management on grain yield and quality. Graham M. Fromm and Vanessa L. Grieger

129

The potential role of weed functional groups in cropping systems. Deirdre Lemerle, Andrew Storrie and F. Dane Panetta

133

Summer fallow weeds: a national study – water, nitrogen, seed banks and impact on subsequent winter crops. Vikki Osten, Abul Hashem, Deirdre Lemerle, Catherine Borger, Eric Koetz, Megan McCosker and Glen Wright

136

Non-chemical weed control in an organic wheat crop Thomas R. Sweeny and Steven R. McCoy

139

Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) control in winter wheat in Wyoming. Craig M. Alford and Stephen D. Miller

142

Low chemical input for weed management in stubble retention farming systems of south eastern Australia. Eric Koetz and Deirdre Lemerle

143

Tillage and residue management practices affect weed dynamics and wheat grain yield. S.D. Sharma, Samar Singh, Harpal Singh and Sandeep Narwal

144

Management of crop weeds through the strategic use of annual pasture. Clinton K. Revell and Dean K. Thomas

145

RANGELAND SYSTEMS

Integrated control methods for bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia L.) in northern Queensland: preliminary results. Faiz Bebawi, Joseph Vitelli, Shane Campbell and Matthew Madigan

150

Effects of para grass (Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) T.Q.Nguyen) invasion on terrestrial invertebrates of a tropical floodplain. Michael M. Douglas and Ruth A. O’Connor

153

Pest or pasture? Introduced pasture grasses in the Northern Territory. Blair S. Grace, Mark R. Gardener and Arthur G. Cameron

157

Will fire help control Parkinsonia aculeata L.? A.C. Grice, J.R. McKenzie, D.M. Nicholas, M. Pattison, L.V. Whiteman, K.E. Steele and S.D. Campbell

161

Temporal fluctuations of Parkinsonia aculeata L. seedling germination and growth in three Australian rangelands habitats Roger Lawes

164

Exotic grass invasion in the tropical savanna of northern Australia: ecosystem consequences. Natalie Rossiter, Samantha Setterfield, Michael Douglas, Lindsay Hutley and Garry Cook

168

Management of invasive rangeland shrubs. Shane Campbell, Wayne Vogler, Rieks van Klinken, John McKenzie, Faiz Bebawi and Tony Grice

172

How abundant and widespread are riparian weeds in the dry tropics of north-east Queensland? A.C. Grice, R.A. Lawes, B.N. Abbott, D.M. Nicholas and L.V. Whiteman

173

Controlling dense infestations of parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata L.). John R. McKenzie, Mike J. Pattison, Karen E. Steele, Shane D. Campbell and Joseph S. Vitelli

176

Effects of mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.) invasion on fuel loads and nitrogen availability in a northern Australia tropical savanna. M.M. Douglas, S.A. Setterfield, N. Rossiter, J. Barratt and L.B. Hutley

179

HORTICULTURAL SYSTEMS

Estimating when to weed an organically-grown onion crop. Graeme W. Bourdôt, Geoff A. Hurrell and David J. Saville

182

What happens when a biocontrol agent attacks exotic but desired ornamentals? Philip E. Maher, Brett J. Davis, Michael D. Day, A. Peter Mackey, William A. Palmer and Elizabeth L. Snow

187

Improved management of weeds under drip-irrigated grape vines. Rhonda Smith, Emily Rouse, Deirdre Lemerle and Ron Hutton

190

CONSERVATION AND AMENITY SYSTEMS

An adaptive experimental management program for English broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link in Victoria. Cathy Allan, John Wright and Kelly Raymond

191

Developing best practice roadside Parthenium hysterophorus L. control. Simon J. Brooks, Joseph S. Vitelli and Allan G. Rainbow

195

Towards more strategic management of weeds on ‘Top End’ Aboriginal lands. Mark R. Gardener, Michael J. Storrs and Steve Wingrave

199

Asparagus weeds research and management in South Australia. Susan L. Lawrie

203

Exotic grass fuel in south eastern Australia. John Stoner, Robyn Adams and Dianne Simmons

207

Urban weed control: innovations in kerb and channel weed management. Rod Wood

210

Does gorse make a difference? Peter A. Williams, Jon J. Sullivan and Susan M. Timmins

212

Weed control and restoration around the El Junco Lagoon, San Cristóbal, Galápagos-Ecuador. Patricio Yánez, Nelson García and Chris Buddenhagen

213

AQUATIC SYSTEMS

Improved strategic planning and management of alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) – myth or reality? Nimal Chandrasena, Lalith Gunasekera and Rebecca Coventry

214

Assessing weed impacts on the recruitment of riparian overstorey species. Fiona J. Ede, Nigel Ainsworth and Trevor D. Hunt

218

Elodea: an emerging submerged weed in Victoria. Lalith Gunasekera

222

Impacts of willow (Salix × rubens) invasion on riparian bird assemblages. Sarah Holland-Clift, Dennis O’Dowd and Ralph MacNally

224

Monitoring Ludwigia longifolia at Mambo Wetlands: investigation of a potentially invasive new weed incursion for Port Stephens Council. Stephen McCall

225

CHEMICAL CONTROL

Novel non-selective herbicide mixtures to combat resistance. Catherine P. Borger and Abul Hashem

226

Evaluation of oxadiargyl herbicide in various Australian horticultural crops. Phillip R. Frost and Tim L. Hingston

230

The need for best practice herbicide management. John Kent

232

Bentazone – surfactant interactions in three selected weed species of differing leaf characteristics. Irene McKay, S.D. Sharma, R.C. Kirkwood, R. Frank and G. Retzlaff

236

Response of Prosopis velutina Woot. to a selection of aerially applied herbicides. E.C. Sparkes and D.J. Midmore

241

Glyphosate – another tool for managing serrated tussock (Nassella trichotoma (Nees) Arech.). Birgitte Verbeek, Fiona Leech and Linda Ayres

245

Validating the factors affecting clodinafop efficacy. Todd S. Andrews, Richard W. Medd, Remy van de Ven and David I. Pickering

249

The chemical control of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) at Warrill Creek, Queensland. Rebecca Breaden and Trevor Armstrong

250

A comparison of wheat and barley response to herbicides between southern New South Wales and southern Queensland. John Churchett, Steve Walker, Peter Lockley and Deirdre Lemerle

251

Tolerance of barley to phenoxy herbicides. Harmohinder S. Dhammu, Chad Sayer and Terry J. Piper

255

Timing of application of phenoxy herbicides in wheat. Harmohinder S. Dhammu and Terry J. Piper

256

Tolerance of chickpea to isoxaflutole. Warwick L. Felton, Ted J. Knights, Bruce M. Haigh and Steve Harden

257

Evaluation of new herbicides for use in capsicums and chillies. Phillip R. Frost and Tim L. Hingston

261

Evaluation of new herbicides in lettuce crops. Phillip R. Frost and Tim L. Hingston

264

Spraytopping as a management tool to reduce seed production in Chilean needle grass infestations Shiv Gaur and David McLaren

266

Controlling silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.), a deep-rooted perennial weed, with herbicides and grazing. Victoria Hawker

267

Efficacy of some new herbicides on both grassy and broadleaf weeds in wheat at Peshawar, Pakistan. Imtiaz Khan, Gul Hassan, Muhammad Ishfaq Khan and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

268

Studies on chemical weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Muhammad Ishfaq Khan, Gul Hassan, Imtiaz Khan and Yousaf Hayat

269

Selective herbicidal activity of an indole alkaloid isolated from Rhazya stricta Decne. growing in Saudi Arabia. Alaa Kamel and Khalid Al-Mutlaq

270

Effect of herbicide application to emerged seed heads on the viability of panicle seed and cleistogenes of Chilean needle grass (Nassella neesiana). Graeme H. Pritchard

274

Effect of adjuvant on the movement of 14C-glyphosate in two model plants. Shiv D. Sharma and M. Singh

279

Effectiveness of spraytopping to control glyphosate resistant annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.). Rex Stanton and Jim Pratley

280

Isoxaben tankmixes provide safe, effective residual weed control in vines. Gregory S. Wells

283

Clopyralid improves control of volunteer legumes with glyphosate. Gregory S. Wells

284

Cyhalofop – hard on barnyard and silvertop grasses but soft on rice. Gregory S. Wells

287

Herbicide based strategies for maize to prevent development of resistance in weeds in the Ukraine. Viktor Zadorozhny

290

CULTURAL CONTROL

Response of blackberry to the 2003 wildfires in Victoria. Nigel Ainsworth and Franz Mahr

294

Hypochaeris radicata L., the most common broadleaf weed of the perennial pasture zone of New South Wales. Jim J. Dellow, Warren McG. King, Geoff C. Wilson and Bruce A. Auld

298

Managing herbicide resistant annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) in no-till systems in Western Australia using occasional inversion ploughing. Alexandra Douglas and Sally C. Peltzer

300

Comparing weed competition in chickpea, fababean, canola and wheat Warwick L. Felton, Bruce M. Haigh and Steve Harden

304

Effect of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) density and lupin cultivars on their competition. Abul Hashem, Bob French, and Catherine Borger

308

Effect of night cultivation on the emergence and competition of weeds in buckwheat. David Van Ryswyk, Brian M. Sindel, Robin Jessop and Paul Kristiansen

312

Precision in physical weed management. Nicholas Bromet and Jeff Tullberg

316

Energy use in physical and herbicide weed control. Nicholas Bromet and Jeff Tullberg

316

Influence of seeding systems on annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seedling recruitment and competitive interactions with lentil (Lens culinaris). Samuel Kleemann and Gurjeet Gill

317

Above and below-ground interference of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrille) by shattercane (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and soybean. Adel Dabbagh Mohammadi Nassab, Karl Hammer, Aziz Javanshir, Houshang Alyari and Mohammad Moghaddam

318

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

Endemic fungi inhibit germination of serrated tussock seed: an alternative to classical biological control? Seona G. Casonato, Ann C. Lawrie, Kym L. Butler and David A. McLaren

321

Environmental conditions and biological control in the Top End: experiments suggesting new directions. Blair S. Grace, Susan Hosking and Veronica Edgar

325

Biological control of bridal creeper, Asparagus asparagoides (L.) W.Wight, in citrus orchards. Raelene M. Kwong and Sarah Holland-Clift

329

The potential for using mycoherbicides to control weeds from the family Brassicaceae in Australia. Aaron Maxwell and John K. Scott

333

Biological control in the Top End: getting communities involved. Nicole Ostermeyer, Blair Grace, Merrilyn Paskins, Vanessa McIntyre and Bronwyn Routley

337

Analysis of the non-target attack by the lantana sap-sucking bug, Aconophora compressa, and its implications for biological control in Australia. William A. Palmer, Michael D. Day, Kunjithapatham Dhileepan, Elizabeth L. Snow and A. Peter Mackey

341

Abiotic factors affecting the pathogenicity of a Sclerotinia sclerotiorum-based mycoherbicide. B.M. Pottinger, H.J. Ridgway, G. Bourdôt and A. Stewart

345

The population and impact of Longitarsus echii Koch (Coleoptera: Chrysmelidae), a root-feeding beetle on Echium plantagineum L. under field grazing conditions. Matthew Smyth, Andy Sheppard and Ruth Huwer

349

The release and establishment of the bitou bush agent Tortrix sp. in New South Wales from 2001–2004. Anthony Swirepik, Ruth Aveyard, Royce Holtkamp and Phillip Stephenson

353

100 years of weed biological control in Queensland. Craig Walton

357

Investigating genetic diversity to improve the biological control process. Trevor J. Wardill, Glenn C. Graham, Andrew Manners, Julia Playford, Myron Zalucki, William A. Palmer and Kirsten D. Scott

364

Successful biological control of salvinia (Salvinia molesta D.Mitch.) at Tweed Heads South, New South Wales. Karen L. Cranney

368

Improving release strategies to increase the establishment rate of weed biocontrol agents. Michael D. Day, David T. Briese, Blair S. Grace, Royce H. Holtkamp, John E. Ireson, Andy W. Sheppard and Helen Spafford Jacob

369

Classical biological control of Californian thistle: the New Zealand story. A. Hugh Gourlay

374

Activity and location of the bridal creeper leafhopper (Zygina sp.) during summer senescence of bridal creeper foliage in southern Victoria. Sarah Holland-Clift, Emily R. Creese and Raelene M. Kwong

378

Biological control of prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica ssp. indica (Benth.) Brenan): early signs of establishment of an introduced agent. Catherine J. Lockett and William A. Palmer

379

An insecticidal exclusion method for studying biological control impacts on ragwort (Senecio jacobaea L.) and Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum L.). Thomas B. Morley and Julio C. Bonilla

380

Establishment and dispersal of dock moth Pyropteron doryliformis (Ochsenheimer) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Victoria. Thomas B. Morley, Steven Faulkner and Ian G. Faithfull

381

Using bacteria to control annual cropping weeds. S.C. Peltzer and R.J. Kremer

385

Importation, establishment and preliminary impact assessment of Chamaesphecia mysiniformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) for the biological control of horehound in Australia. Jean-Louis Sagliocco and John Weiss

388

The effectiveness of ant baiting to reduce predation of Crioceris sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for bridal creeper. Thomas Reilly, Helen Spafford Jacob and Kathryn Batchelor

391

Oviposition behaviour of biological control agents for Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum L. Boraginaceae). Jodie Hawley, Helen Spafford Jacob, Paul Wilson and Geoff Strickland

395

Interactions between two weed biological control agents, an insect and pathogen, and the response of their host. Peter Turner, Louise Morin, David Williams and Darren Kriticos

398

Biocontrol of Emex at the expense of Tamarix incursions? Paul B. Yeoh, John K. Scott and Tim L. Woodburn

399

HERBICIDE RESISTANCE

Roadside canola in South Australia and Victoria: persistent or transient populations? Jeanine Baker and Christopher Preston

403

Determining the extent of herbicide resistance in the rice growing regions of southern Australia. John C. Broster, James E. Pratley, Giles E. Flower and Ragini Flower

406

The impact of the cotton farming system on weed succession: implications for herbicide resistance and adoption of an integrated weed management approach. Graham Charles, Ian Taylor and Grant Roberts

410

Diflufenican resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.): its discovery and consequences for the lupin industry Aik Cheam and Siew Lee

414

Glyphosate-resistant annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) from Tamworth, Australia, has upregulated EPSPS expression. Dion K. Harrison, Wenjie Liu, Steve W. Adkins, Peter M. Gresshoff and Richard R. Williams

418

Molecular characterisation of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in wild oat in the northern grain-growing region of Australia. Wenjie Liu, Dion Harrison, Chris O’Donnell, Steve Adkins and Richard Williams

421

Evolution and spread of herbicide resistant barley grass (Hordeum glaucum Steud. and H. leporinum Link.) in South Australia. Imam Hidayat, Jeanine Baker and Christopher Preston

425

Preventing glyphosate resistance in weeds of the northern grain region. Steve Walker, Michael Widderick, Andrew Storrie and Vikki Osten

428

A population of wild oats (Avena ludoviciana Durieu) resistant to flamprop-m-methyl. John C. Broster

432

Experiences with triflusulfuron-methyl resistant witloof chicory (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum). Hilde Eelen, Robert Bulcke, Els Desmet and Robrecht Sarrazyn

434

No regression in the frequency of herbicide resistance in one population of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) after 13 years without herbicide use. David G. Ferris and Stephen B. Powles

435

Glyphosate resistance management in the USA – a Syngenta perspective. Les Glasgow, Nick Polge, Chuck Foresman and Jasper Barnes

436

Double knockdown to combat annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) resistance to glyphosate. Abul Hashem and Catherine Borger

441

Multiple resistance in glyphosate resistant annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) populations. Rex Stanton and John Broster

442

Genetic relationship between glyphosate resistant annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) populations from northern New South Wales. Rex Stanton, Andrew Storrie, Nigel Urwin and Jim Pratley

445

How many mechanisms of evolved glyphosate resistance are present in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.)? Angela M. Wakelin and Christopher Preston

449

INVASION AND SPREAD

The role of spatial analyses in post-border weed risk management. Neville D. Crossman

450

Weeds as ‘Key Threatening Processes’: implications for managing environmental weeds. Paul O. Downey and Andrew R. Leys

454

Natural range, nature and weeds. John L. Dwyer

458

Quantifying the effects of weeds on biodiversity: beyond Blind Freddy’s test A.C. Grice, A.R. Field and R.E.C. McFadyen

464

Early intervention action on Canary Island St. Johns wort, Hypericum canariense L., in Victoria Michael Hansford and Linda J. Iaconis

469

Predictive value of plant functional types in determining future high-impact weeds. Graeme T. Hastwell and F. Dane Panetta

472

Lippia, Phyla canescens, an increasing threat to agriculture and the environment. Mic Julien, Andrew Storrie and Rob McCosker

476

A pain in the grass: what’s the diagnosis? Rieks van Klinken, F. Dane Panetta, Barbara Ross and Colin Wilson

480

Detecting alien plant species early in the invasion process: a sampling strategy for the detection of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King and H.Rob. (Siam weed). Roger Lawes and F. Dane Panetta

484

Working with weeds in the Land of the Thunderdragon: an opportunity to prevent weed invasions. John Weiss, T. Thinley, Karma Nidup, Mahesh Ghimiray, Sangay Wandi and Tshering Dochen

488

Development of strategies for eradication of selected agricultural sleeper weeds. Gemma Woldendorp, Mary Bomford, Simon Barry, F. Dane Panetta and David Cunningham

492

Kochia (Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J.Scott) eradication in Western Australia: a review. Jonathan Dodd

496

Functional groups of bird-dispersed weeds. Carl Gosper and Gabrielle Vivian-Smith

500

Emex spinosa (L.) Campd.: a predicted weed threat that has not lived up to expectations? John K. Scott and Paul B. Yeoh

501

BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

Assessment of allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus residues. Daizy R. Batish, Harminder P. Singh, Jasvir K. Pandher, Ravinder K. Kohli and Vandana Arora

505

Taxonomic update and Lucid key for introduced blackberry in Australia. Katherine J. Evans, David E. Symon, Molly A. Whalen, Robyn M. Barker, John R. Hosking and Julie A. Oliver

509

The effect of summer weed management strategies on subsequent germinations and seed bank numbers. Graham M. Fromm and Vanessa L. Grieger

513

Effect of sheep mastication and digestion on the transmission and viability of small-flowered mallow (Malva parviflora L.) seeds. Pippa J. Michael, Philip E. Vercoe, Kathryn J. Steadman and Julie A. Plummer

516

Persistence of Fumaria densiflora DC. seed in the field. Gertraud M. Norton, Deirdre Lemerle and James E. Pratley

519

Seed banks: the bane of the weed eradicator. F. Dane Panetta

523

Environmental control of dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud. seeds. Kathryn J. Steadman and Amanda J. Ellery

527

Seed bank ecology of the invasive vine, cats claw creeper (Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A.Gentry). Gabrielle Vivian-Smith and F. Dane Panetta

531

Better management of Sonchus oleraceus L. (common sowthistle) based on the weed’s ecology. Michael Widderick, Steve Walker and Brian Sindel

535

Emergence and persistence of barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona (L.) Link) and its management options in sorghum. Hanwen Wu, Steve Walker, Vikki Osten, Ian Taylor and Brian Sindel

538

Is South African bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) allelopathic in Australia? Emilie-Jane Ens, Kristine French and John Bremner

542

Propagule pressure determines establishment after weed control. Clayson J. Howell

543

Bladder ketmia (Hibiscus trionum L.) in Australia – a variable taxa. Stephen B. Johnson, Brian M. Sindel and Graham W. Charles

544

Seed longevity of Carduus nutans in Australia: consequences for weed management. Michael J. Neave

548

Longevity of pond apple (Annona glabra L.) seeds and implications for management. Stephen D. Setter, Melissa J. Setter and Shane D. Campbell

551

Seed bank dynamics of two exotic grass species in Australia’s northern savannas. Samantha A. Setterfield, Sean Bellairs, Michael M. Douglas and Taegan Calnan

555

Allelopathic interference of Ageratum conyzoides L. against some crop plants. Harminder P. Singh, Daizy R. Batish, Shalinder Kaur, Ravinder K. Kohli and Kuldeep S. Dogra

558

Seed bank of mesquite (Leguminoseae: Prosopis spp.) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Georgina Gardner, Helen Spafford Jacob and Rieks van Klinken

562

Effect of temperature, scarification and light on the dormancy and germination of seeds of three mesquite (Leguminoseae: Prosopis spp.) hybrids naturalized in Australia Georgina K. Gardner, Helen Spafford Jacob, Kathryn J. Steadman and Rieks D. van Klinken

566

Observations of camphor laurel, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl, in north eastern New South Wales. Joe A. Friend

571

MODELLING AND ECONOMICS

Valuation of the cost of a weed incursion in a natural environment: a simulation approach. Susan M. Hester, Jack Sinden and Oscar J. Cacho

572

The economic benefits of IWM: the role of risk and sustainability in farming systems. Randall Jones

576

What is the impact of harvesting technology on the spread of new weeds in cropping systems? M. Monjardino, A. Diggle and J. Moore

580

Benefit cost analysis for weed risk assessment in natural environments: full analysis, partial analysis or rules of thumb? Doreen I.S. Odom and Jack Sinden

584

The economic impact of weeds in Australian agriculture. Jack Sinden, Randall Jones, Susie Hester, Doreen Odom, Cheryl Kalisch, Rosemary James and Oscar Cacho

588

Estimating uncertainty in weed risk assessment predictions. Peter Caley, Paul Pheloung and Mark Lonsdale

592

Sacrificing innocents to get the outlaw – the benefits of early control. Simon Harris, Susan M. Timmins and F. Dane Panetta

596

COMMUNICATION AND ADOPTION (AGRICULTURAL)

No-till adoption and the weed management challenge. Frank H. D’Emden and Rick S. Llewellyn

597

Agricultural contractors bail up weeds – an accreditation system to reduce weed spread in Tasmania. Cindy Hanson

601

Farmer perceptions on herbicide resistance and proposed herbicide use to control annual ryegrass in South Australia. Dawn Hawthorn-Jackson, Christopher Preston and Robert Davidson

605

Extension of weed research outcomes through the Australian cotton industry. Annie Johnson and Greg Salmond

608

Packing the punch to weeds: WEEDpak – a weed identification and management guide for the Australian cotton industry. Stephen B. Johnson

611

The management of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) in southern Australian broadacre farming systems is lacking in diversity Peter J. O’Connell and Jean-Louis Allard

615

‘Weed Warriors’ – overcoming the problem with weeds. Kate McArthur, Victoria Hawker and Megan McCarthy

619

Physical weed control working group – a case study of a weed information network. Andrew C. Bishop and Mike Collins

620

COMMUNICATION AND ADOPTION (AMENITY)

Motivating action and maintaining behaviour – challenges for Weedbusters, New Zealand. Amber Bill, Ian Popay and Susan Timmins

623

Lantana – at WONS with the community? Andrew Clark, Elissa van Oosterhout, Emily Menzies, Hellen Haapakoski and Michael Day

627

Community involvement in biological control: towards the development of an improved evaluation model. Sarah Holland-Clift and Raelene M. Kwong

631

How is the national Chilean needle grass program progressing? Linda J. Iaconis

636

Developing weed management strategies. Sarah I. Keel

640

Watch for these weeds: public help in weed led programs in Northland, New Zealand. A.P. McCluggage

644

Community weed mapping – a vision for the future. David A. McLaren, Jim Backholer, Jamie Cooper, Stephen Welsh and Domenic Scardamaglia

648

Using your cute and furries: the role of threatened species in weed awareness. S.J. Vidler

652

Measuring and evaluating performance in weed management projects. Lorne Butt, Richard Carter, Syd Lisle and Judith Rawling

659

A new process to identify the weeds of La Réunion Island: the AdvenRun system Thomas Le Bourgeois, Eric Jeuffrault, Pierre Grard and Alain Carrara

660

Working together – a cooperative approach to weed management. Ann Herbert

664

Identification of Chilean needle grass, Nassella neesiana – a Weed of National Significance. Linda J. Iaconis

666

Improving the market orientation of weeds information. Annette McCaffery and Bob Trounce

667

The first thousand days: communicating the introduction of change in the New Zealand Department of Conservation. Ian Popay

668

POLICY, PLANNING AND REGULATION

The Noxious Weeds Act 1993 (NSW) – balancing people, planet and profit? Elisa Arcioni

669

Successful control of honey locust trees (Gleditsia triacanthos L.) in Queensland. Steve M. Csurhes

673

Which thistles are truly noxious? Michael Michelmore

676

National Aquatic Weeds Management Group – a new approach to managing the aquatic Weeds of National Significance. Andrew Petroeschevsky

680

Quarantine law loophole: an examination of the known weed species permitted for import without weed risk assessment. Helen Spafford Jacob, Roderick P. Randall, Sandra G. Lloyd and Chrystal King

684

A national set of core attributes for surveying, mapping and monitoring Weeds of National Significance. Richard Thackway, Ian McNaught and David Cunningham

690

Coordinating and prioritising weed management in the Riverina. Paula Ash, Birgitte Verbeek and Doug Harris

694

Towards a national approach to minimise the spread of weeds within Australia. Mirranie J. Barker

695

Bitou bush management and plant conservation: establishing priorities for control. Paul O. Downey

697

Distribution, economic impact and attitudes towards silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.) in Australia. David A. McLaren, Tereso A. Morfe, Iggy Honan and Royce Holtkamp

701

Park-scale weed risk assessment in Victoria. Kelly Raymond and Phil Pegler

702

Willow management developments across New South Wales. Bob Trounce

706

Victoria’s noxious weed review: roll out not fall out. John Weiss, Bob Edgar, Trevor Hunt and Tereso Morfe

707

AUTHORS’ INDEX

711

KEYWORD INDEX

714