15th Australian Weeds Conference
15th Australian Weeds Conference proceedings: managing weeds in a changing climate

Edited by C. Preston, J.H. Watts and N.D. Crossman

 

Published in 2006 by Weed Management Society of SA., soft cover, 904 pages - available as CD-ROM (PDF) only

 

Price $A90.00 plus $A7.00 within Australia, overseas postage please request a quote

 

ISBN 0646463446 or ISBN 9780646463445

Organized by the Weed Management Society of South Australia for the Council of Australasian Weed Societies and held at the Adelaide Convention Centre on 24-28 September 2006

 

The theme of ‘Climate Change’ was chosen for this conference more than two years ago, and since that time the media attention given to this topic has steadily grown. Society is beginning to accept the reality of this phenomenon and to consider the potential consequences. As weed scientists and decision-makers we must come to terms with the implications of climate change for the management of weeds.

 

  • Papers and proceedings
  • Table of contents

Papers cover new developments in crop weed management, changing climates in Australia, national initiatives, animal dispersal of weeds, social and policy change, biology and ecology of crop weeds, environmental weeds, weeds and mines, crop weed management, mapping and regional weed management, herbicide resistance, biological control, weed eradication, economics of weeds, weed risk assessment, community participation, aquatic and riparian weeds, environmental weed impacts, new chemicals and uses, pastures and forestry.

 

Table of contents

CAWS ORATION

Invasive alien species – are we up to the challenge? H.A. Mooney, E.S. Zavaleta and R.J. Hobbs

1

PLENERY

Riparian vegetation – degraded, invaded, transformed. Towards a conceptual framework for management. David M. Richardson

6

BAYER CROPSCIENCE SYMPOSIUM: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN CROP WEED MANAGEMENT

New developments in weed management from industry. Martin Hess, Arno Schulz, Hermann Stuebler and Hansjoerg Kraehmer

11

Evolving on-farm weed management systems: the Canadian experience. Robert E. Blackshaw

17

SYMPOSIUM: CHANGING CLIMATES IN AUSTRALIA: WHAT MIGHT IT MEAN FOR WEEDS

Climate change and weed management in Australian farming systems. Peter Hayman and Victor Sadras

22

Predicting the potential geographic distribution of weeds in 2080. Darren J. Kriticos, Neil S. Alexander and Shaun M. Kolomeitz

27

Assessing the potential impacts of climate change on weeds in New South Wales: establishing priorities. Rachael Gallagher, Linda Beaumont, Paul O. Downey, Lesley Hughes and Michelle R. Leishman

35

NATIONAL INITIATIVES

Is it all just WoNS and the same? Successes and challenges in the management of WoNS across Australia. Sarah Holland Clift, Hillary Cherry, Andrew Petroeschevsky and Peter Austin

40

National weed containment and eradication zones: challenges, successes and lessons learned. Hillary Cherry, Sandy Leighton, Andrew Clark and Peter Austin

44

Developing best practice manuals for Weeds of National Significance. Marc Carter, Andrew Clark and Elissa van Oosterhout

48

Defeating the Weed Menace R&D: researching the impacts of change on weed invasion. Judy Lambert

52

Towards cooperative national arrangements for weed spread prevention – the saga continues. Mirranie J. Barker

55

A national protocol for post-border weed risk management. J.G. Virtue and F.D. Panetta

57

Raising the profile of weeds – are we on track? Peter Martin

58

SYMPOSIUM: ANIMAL DISPERSAL OF WEEDS: MANAGING WEEDS, NATIVE PLANT REGENERATION AND FAUNA REQUIREMENTS

Opportunities for managing the dispersal of fleshy-fruited invasive plants. Carl R. Gosper and Gabrielle Vivian-Smith

59

Murraya paniculata: what is the potential for this popular ornamental plant to become an environmental weed? Eve M. White, Gabrielle Vivian-Smith and Carl R. Gosper

63

A moving feast: the influence of landscape context on bird-mediated seed rain into conservation areas. S. Anderson, S. Heiss-Dunlop and J. Flohr

67

Refining melastome dispersal modes in rain forest landscapes. Daniel J. Metcalfe, Helen Murphy, David Westcott, Travis Sydes and Gabrielle Vivian-Smith

72

Seeing the forest through the weeds: frugivorous birds and rainforest regeneration in subtropical regrowth dominated by camphor laurel. Wendy Neilan, Carla Catterall, John Kanowski and Stephen McKenna

73

Land use and feral olives in the Adelaide Hills. David A. Cooke

77

Incorporating dispersal ecology into the management of plant invasions. David A. Westcott and Andrew J. Dennis

80

Scientific approaches to selecting weed replacement plants for use by frugivorous birds. Carl R. Gosper and Gabrielle Vivian-Smith

83

SYMPOSIUM: ACHIEVING SOCIAL AND POLICY CHANGE FOR BETTER WEED MANAGEMENT OUTCOMES

Optimising government investment at different stages of the weed invasion process. Tereso A. Morfe and John Weiss

87

Weed proofing Australia: a way forward on invasive garden plants. Andreas Glanznig

91

‘Turn the tap off before you mop up the spill’: exploring a permitted-list approach to regulations over the sale and interstate movement of potentially invasive plants in the States and Territories of Australia. Steve Csurhes, Rod Randall, Christian Goninon, Alice Beilby, Stephen Johnson and John E. Weiss

95

Insights into motivations and barriers for weed control in grazing districts of southern Australia. A.W. van der Meulen, I.J. Reeve and B.M. Sindel

99

Changing perceptions in a changing climate: invasive plant species management in Mediterranean landscapes. Douglas Bardsley and Gareth Edwards-Jones

103

Victorian local government managing weeds in a changing climate. Naree Atkinson and Nina Rogers

107

Measuring the level of public weed awareness. Peter Martin

111

Weedbusters New Zealand in a changing social environment. Carolyn Lewis and Ian Popay

114

Weeds: new strategies for an old problem. Paul Martin

118

BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF CROP WEEDS

Logic, not convention, should dictate methodology: spatial pattern as a case study. Roger D. Cousens

122

The germination ecology of common heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.). James R. Hunt, Roger D. Cousens and Sue E. Knights

126

The effect of rhizome fragment length and burial depth on Physalis viscosa L. survival. Steven Faulkner and Ken Young

130

Morphology and molecular characterisation of Echinochloa species in the northern grain region. Michelle D. Keenan, Steve Walker, Michael Widderick, Mandy Christopher, Brian Sindel, Ian Taylor and Hanwen Wu

133

Biology and management of flaxleaf fleabane (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist). Hanwen Wu, Steve Walker, Ian Taylor and Geoff Robinson

137

Pod and seed coat factors in seed dormancy of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.). Seyed V. Eslami, Gurjeet S. Gill, Bill Bellotti and Glenn McDonald

141

Russian thistle (Salsola spp.) biology and management. Frank L. Young

145

Seed viability and dormancy in roly poly (Salsola tragus L.) populations. Catherine Borger, John K. Scott, Michael Walsh and Stephen Powles

148

Does Polymeria take-all? Competition for water and nutrients between Polymeria longifolia (Polymeria take-all) and cotton. Stephen B. Johnson and Brian M. Sindel

151

Is seed dispersal density-dependent? M.S. Taghizadeh and R.D. Cousens

155

Sowing method and sowing rate effects on wheat and annual ryegrass competition. Abul Hashem and Glen P. Riethmuller

159

Biology and management of red dodder – a new threat to the grains industry. Abul Hashem, Daya Patabendige and Chris Roberts

163

Seed dormancy in Papaver rhoeas is affected by the time of emergence of mother plants. Joel Torra and Jordi Recasens

167

Can a lab test predict field persistence of weed seeds? Rowena L. Long, Kathryn J. Steadman, F. Dane Panetta, Renée M. Bekker, Robin Probert and Steve W. Adkins

171

Phenotypic plasticity of sowthistle and its offspring in response to light availability. S-Zahra-Hosseini Cici, Jim Hanan, Brian Sindel and Steve Adkins

172

Genetic variation within and among silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.) populations in South Australia. Victoria Hawker, Christopher Preston and Jeanine Baker

176

ENVIRONMENTAL WEEDS

Environmental weeds along New Zealand roadsides: an initial assessment. Susan M. Timmins, Mark Smale, Jon J. Sullivan and Peter A. Williams

177

Ecology of Lilium formosanum Wallace and implications for management. Susie Warner, A.C. Grice and J.A. Duggin

180

Predicting weed seed persistence in the soil: hydration cycles enhance seed longevity. Rowena L. Long, Kathryn J. Steadman, F. Dane Panetta and Steve W. Adkins

184

A succulent escape in the arid lands of southern Australia – carrion flower (Orbea variegata). Iggy Honan

188

Conflicting values of topped lavender Lavandula stoechas L.: the essential oil on a complex issue. Heidi Nicholson

191

Control of the environmental weeds Reynoutria japonica and Bryonia cretica. T.K. James, A. Rahman and A.I. Popay

195

Functional diversity of native and invasive plant species in tropical rainforests. Helen T. Murphy, David A. Westcott and Dan J. Metcalfe

199

Gorse and broom in the Adelaide Hills: effect of invasive species on soil microbial biomass and nutrients. Alice M. Dewar, José M. Facelli, Petra Marschner, F. Andrew Smith and F. Dane Panetta

203

Impacts of Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf (Coolatai grass) on native vegetation in a travelling stock route in northern New South Wales. V.K. Chejara, C. Nadolny, P. Kristiansen, R.B.D. Whalley and B.M. Sindel

207

Regrowth of blackberry two years after the 2003 wildfires in Victoria. Nigel Ainsworth and Franz Mahr

211

Bellyache bush: a resilient shrub in northern Australia. Wayne Vogler

215

Using herbicide to control century plant (Agave americana): implications for management. Douglas C. Bickerton

219

Seasonal timing of glyphosate application: impacts on native plant communities in a north Australian tropical savanna. Kristine Brooks, Samantha A. Setterfield and Michael M. Douglas

223

Bumblebees: implications of a new super-pollinator in mainland Australia. Rachel E. McFadyen and Sandy G. Lloyd

227

Slow down and smell the vanilla lilies. Peter Tucker

231

Trait differences between exotic and native species within a long-grazed temperate grassland on the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales. Anita C. Chalmers

235

Integrated management of hybrid mesquite: a collaborative fight against one of Australia’s worst woody weeds. Linda J. Anderson, Rieks D. van Klinken, Robert J. Parr, Richard Climas and David Barton

239

Best-practice chemical control of English broom (Cytisus scoparius) evaluated in Alpine National Park, Victoria, through adaptive experimental management program. Cathy Allan, Lynise Wearne, Jodi Price, Marie Keatley and Paula Tumino

243

The dynamics of Lantana camara L. invasion of subtropical rainforest in south-east Queensland. Daniel H. Stock and Clyde Wild

247

Mimosa pigra in Queensland. J.S. Vitelli, B.A. Madigan and K.J. Worsley

251

The distribution of western Cape form of bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) in South Australia and Victoria. Robin B. Coles, Katrina L. Willing, John G. Conran and Dennis Gannaway

255

Developing a bush regeneration plan to restore degraded habitat. Tiffany Knott and Mellesa Schroder

257

Rhamnus, rats and Rangitoto. A. Ian Popay, Trevor James and Phil Brown

261

Site- versus species-based approaches to weed management in Australia. Paul O. Downey and Andrew W. Sheppard

264

Seed coat morphology of Parkinsonia aculeata L. and pattern of heat-induced fractures. Kenneth A. Scott

268

Reproductive phenology of Pennisetum pedicellatum. Samantha Setterfield, Michael Douglas, Jane Barratt and Kristine Brooks

272

Medicinal herbs and weeds in colonial Victoria. John Dwyer

275

Management of horsetail species using herbicides. Nigel Ainsworth, Lalith Gunasekera and Julio Bonilla

279

Controlling gorse seedbanks. John Moore, Libby Sandiford, Liz Austen and Grey Poulish

283

Taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott): effects of removal on the natural biodiversity of a fresh water wetland and implications for restoration of similar habitats. Kate Brown and Grazyna Paczkowska

287

Control of Arctotheca calendula amongst the critically endangered Corrigin grevillea Grevillea scapigera on translocation sites in the wheatbelt of Western Australia. I.R. (Bob) Dixon

288

The distribution of Rorippa sylvestris, creeping yellow cress in South Australia. Robin B. Coles

291

How bad is blackberry in south-west Australia? P.B. Yeoh, L. Fontanini, R.J. Cranfield and J.K. Scott

293

Molecular identification of invasive Billardiera fusiformis genotypes from the indigenous populations in Western Australia. Anna M. Williams, Guijun Yan, Eligio Bruzzese and Helen Spafford Jacob

294

What does genetic variation in one-leaf Cape tulip (Moraea flaccida) populations in Australia tell us: implications for classical biological control? Deborah Blackman, Jeanine Baker and Christopher Preston

295

Africanising the tropical woodlands: canopy loss and tree death following gamba grass

Andropogon gayanus invasion. Keith Ferdinands, Samantha Setterfield, Michael Douglas and Jane Barratt

296

WEEDS AND MINES

Ecological control of weeds on mine sites across Australia. Sean M. Bellairs

297

Developing closure criteria for weeds on Ranger mine. Mark R. Gardener, Jane Addison, Anne Ferguson, Peter Bayliss and Andrew Speechly

301

The impact of uncontrolled weeds on the rehabilitation success of Nabarlek uranium mine in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Peter Bayliss, Sean M. Bellairs, Judy Manning, Kirrilly Pfitzner, Howard Smith, Mark Gardenerand Greg Calvert

305

Identification, persistence and management of environmental weeds in bauxite mine rehabilitation in Western Australia. Melanie A. Norman and Carl D. Grant

309

Weed management on Ranger and Jabiluka mineral leases. Bronwyn Bidoli, Mark R. Gardener, Jane Addison and Andrew Speechly

313

CROP WEED MANAGEMENT

Chemical control of weedy rice in pre-germinated wet seeded rice in Thailand. Chanya Maneechote, Somsak Samanwong, Rungsit Suwanketnikom and Sansanee Jamjod

317

Participatory adaptation of an Integrated Weed Management strategy for wet direct-seeded rice in the Philippines. M.C. Casimero, E.C. Martin, D.K.M. Donayre, J.C. Beltran, E.M. Talon, J. Argumento, C.A. Arroyo, S.P. Marsh and R.S. Llewellyn

320

Improving competitive ability of chickpea with sowthistle. S-Zahra-Hosseini Cici, Paul Kristiansen and Brian M. Sindel

324

Use of glyphosate as a clearance treatment for groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) production in humid savannah in central Cameroon. Lindsey Norgrove

328

Improving rice-based cropping systems in north-west Bangladesh. M.A. Mazid, C.R. Riches, A.M. Mortimer, L.J. Wade and D.E. Johnson

331

Windrow management for annual ryegrass control: bury, burn or bomb? Sally C. Peltzer and Paul Matson

335

Forage management effects on annual ryegrass density and cereal grain yields. Viv F. Burnett, Tim M. Enshaw and Steve J. Sutherland

339

Weed seed persistence with changing farming practices in southern Queensland. Steve Walker, Bruce Wilson, Hanwen Wu, Michael Widderick and Ian Taylor

343

Weeds and summer crop row spacing studies in Queensland. Vikki Osten, Hanwen Wu, Steven Walker, Glen Wright and Alison Shields

347

Crop row orientation induced photo-sensory effect on the competitive interactions of crops and weeds. Shahab Pathan, Abul Hashem and Catherine Borger

351

Metribuzin tolerance of EGA Eagle Rock wheat. Harmohinder S. Dhammu and David F. Nicholson

355

Positioning the second generation of herbicide tolerant cotton varieties – Roundup Ready Flex® and Liberty Link® cottons – into Australia cotton farming systems: opportunities and threats. Graham W. Charles and Ian N. Taylor

359

Grain legume herbicide research in the USA after Roundup-Ready soybean – prickly lettuce and mayweed chamomile. Joseph P. Yenish, Rodney R. Rood and John Nelson

363

Clearfield™ wheat to control hard-to-kill weeds. Abul Hashem, Alex Douglas and Catherine Borger

367

Managing weeds through rotations in Central West New South Wales. Annie Johnson

371

Temporal dynamics of weed populations in arable fields using long-term site-specific weed control. D. Dicke and W. Kühbauch

375

Weeds seed bank changes for annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) and other species under a range of farm management practices on the Liverpool Plains of northern New South Wales. Sandeep Narwal, Brian M. Sindel and Robin S. Jessop

379

The importance of patent status to ‘public’ investment in herbicide use research and development. Bronwyn Crowe, Bob Lindner and Rick Llewellyn

383

Critical period of cotton weed control in the Zambezi valley. Z. Mavunganidze, A.B. Mashingaidze, O.A. Chivinge, C. Riches, J. Ellis-Jones and M. Mutenje

387

Wild radish-lupin competition: difference in the competitive ability of lupin cultivars. Abul Hashem, Shahab Pathan and Bob French

391

Impacts of summer fallow weeds on soil nitrogen and wheat in the southern, western and northern Australian grain regions. Vikki Osten, Abul Hashem, Eric Koetz, Deirdre Lemerle, Shahab Pathan and Glen Wright

395

Can effective weed management be obtained by grouping species by lifecycle? Case studies from the cotton industry. Stephen. B. Johnson

399

Promoting best management practice for weed control in Central West New South Wales. Annie Johnson

403

Effects of soil pH on isoxaflutole injury to tolerant and sensitive chickpea genotypes. Avishek Datta, Brian Sindel, Robin Jessop, Craig Birchall, Chris Guppy and Warwick Felton

406

Potential of triallate in combination with chlorsulfuron to control multiple herbicide resistant metabolism-based Lolium rigidum. Roberto Busi and Stephen Powles

410

Effect of diversification of rice-wheat cropping system on weed population and weed dry weight. R.C. Samui, Subhendu Mondal and Debtanu Dash

414

Phalaris spp. competition with wheat using an additive design series. Ashish Bhan and R.J. Froud-Williams

417

Investigation of single and integrated application of different herbicides on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) yield and its components in winter sowing. A.R. Yousefi and H.M. Alizadeh

420

Integration of mechanical methods and herbicides in controlling weeds of soybean (Glycine max). R. Abbasi, H.M. Alizadeh, H.Z. Khanghah and Kh.T. Jahromi

423

Canopy interference of chickpea with sowthistle – model development. S-Zahra-Hosseini Cici, Steve Adkins, Brian Sindel and Jim Hanan

426

Tolerance of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) to isoxaflutole and carfentrazone-ethyl. Ping Si, Mark Sweetingham and Bevan Buirchell

427

National training for grains advisers on integrated weed management. John Cameron, Andrew Storrie and Peter Martin

428

MAPPING AND REGIONAL WEED MANAGEMENT

Development and implementation of monitoring protocols to evaluate the effectiveness of weed management programs. Kelly Raymond, Glen Jameson, Marie Keatley and Cameron Miller

429

Concept of weed mapping and monitoring using online virtual globes. Matthias Backes, Daniel Schumacher and Lutz Plümer

432

Tackling weeds on private land. Helen Anderson and Beth Jones

435

Building the capacity of Victorian Municipal Councils to manage weeds. Stephen Young

439

Leading the community in gorse control – Victorian Gorse Task Force. Sharyn Williams and Hamish Hurley

443

Engaging organisations for improved weed management. Mark Farrer

446

When science meets policy – nassella tussock in New Zealand as a case study. Laurence P. Smith and Shona L. Lamoureaux

450

Onion weed: pest or perception? John L. Pitt, John G. Virtue and Leah J. Feuerherdt

454

Risk of weed movement through vehicles, plant and equipment: results from a Victorian study. Michael Moerkerk

458

Rural lands incentives program and gardens for wildlife. Paul R. Marynissen and Diane M. Campbell

462

Using networks to understand source and sink relationships to manage weeds in a riparian zone. R.A. Lawes and R.R.J. McAllister

466

Development of a manual for mapping Weeds of National Significance. Leanne Brown and Richard Thackway

470

Using temporal sequences of Landsat™ imagery to detect trends in Acacia nilotica in the Mitchell grass plains. R.A. Lawes and J.F. Wallace

474

Hyperspectral remote sensing of invasive plants: detecting lianas in Panama. Karen L. Castro-Esau

477

A catchment approach to parkinsonia control – can it be done? Roger Landsberg, Marie Vitelli, Bob Shepherd, Ramon Jayo and Raye Whalan

481

HERBICIDE RESISTANCE

Frequency, distribution and mechanisms of herbicide resistance in Western Australian wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations: a review. Michael J. Walsh, Shane Friesen and Stephen B. Powles

484

Herbicide resistance testing of Lolium rigidum by commercial institutions. Peter Boutsalis and John Broster

488

Herbicide resistance prevention and management in the northern cropping region through extension and education. Michael Widderick, Steve Walker, Andrew Storrie, Vikki Osten and Kathryn Galea

491

Weed and pollen mobility and social costs of herbicide resistance. Sally P. Marsh, David J. Pannell and Rick S. Llewellyn

495

Simulating weed persistence and herbicide resistance in the northern grain region using a validated crop growth model with extensions for seedbank dynamics and mating. David Thornby, Steven R. Walker and Jeremy P.M. Whish

499

Predicting the rate of glyphosate resistance evolution in glyphosate tolerant cotton systems in Australia. Jeff Werth, Christopher Preston, Jeanine Baker, Grant Roberts and Ian Taylor

503

Management of trifluralin resistance in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) in southern Australia. Peter Boutsalis, Christopher Preston and John Broster

507

Can a shikimate assay be used to determine the genotype of glyphosate resistant plants for population genetic studies? Christopher Preston, Dale L. Shaner, Philip Westra, A. Stanley Culpepper, Timothy Grey, William K. Vencill and Angela Wakelin

511

The cost of glyphosate resistance: is there a fitness penalty associated with glyphosate resistance in annual ryegrass? Angela M. Wakelin and Christopher Preston

515

Spread of resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides in a wind borne, self-pollinated weed, Lactuca serriola L. (prickly lettuce). Jeanine Baker, Yi Qing Lu and Christopher Preston

519

Status of resistance to acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase inhibitors in French populations of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.). Yosra Menchari, Bruno Chauvel, Jean Philippe Guillemin and Christophe Délye

522

Resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides in Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. Christopher Preston

526

Resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides in Echium plantagineum L. Christopher Preston

530

A national assessment of serrated tussock resistance to the herbicide flupropanate in Australia. D.A. McLaren, S. Ramasamy, A.C. Lawrie, G. Pritchard and T.A. Morfe

534

Resistance to acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides in Bromus spp. in Australia. Peter Boutsalis and Christopher Preston

538

A Lolium rigidum biotype with multiple resistant to glyphosate, paraquat and ACCase herbicides. Qin Yu, Andrew Cairns and Stephen Powles

541

Herbicide resistant sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) in South Australia, northern New South Wales and Queensland. Robin S. St. John-Sweeting, Christopher Preston, Jeanine Baker, Steve Walker and Michael Widderick

542

Preliminary investigations of the effect of pollen competition on gene flow in the wind pollinated species annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.). Jeanine Baker and Christopher Preston

543

An experimental approach to study fitness penalty in trifluralin resistant biotypes of Lolium rigidum. Benjamin J. Fleet, Gurjeet S. Gill, Christopher Preston and David R. Coventry

544

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

Impact evaluation of weed biological control in Australia: lessons from a quantitative review. Adele M. Reid

545

Costs associated with declaring organisms through the Biological Control Act when conflicts of interest threaten weed biological control projects. David A. McLaren, William A. Palmer and Tereso A. Morfe

549

Biocontrol of weeds in the Northern Territory: what has it achieved? Blair Grace, Janine Paynter, Rieks van Klinken and Laura Wirf

553

Blackberry: treading a prickly path to effective biological control in Australia. Robin J. Adair and Eligio Bruzzese

557

Advancements in biocontrol of Mimosa pigra in the Northern Territory. Bronwyn M. Routley and Laura A. Wirf

561

Additional strains of Phragmidium violaceum released for the biological control of blackberry. L. Morin, R. Aveyard, K.L. Batchelor, K.J. Evans, D. Hartley and M. Jourdan

565

Broom rust in Australia. Louise Morin, Jean-Louis Sagliocco, Diana Hartley, John R. Hosking, Phil Cramond and Bill Washington

569

Biological control of brooms in Australia: an update. Andy W. Sheppard, John R. Hosking, Jean-Louis Sagliocco, Thierry Thomann, Paul O. Downey and Raelene M. Kwong

573

Establishment, initial impact and persistence of parthenium summer rust Puccinia melampodii in north Queensland. Kunjithapatham Dhileepan, Singarayar K. Florentine and Catherine J. Lockett

577

Parkinsonia aculeata: surveys for natural enemies, native range ecological studies and prospects for biological control. Tim A. Heard

581

A preliminary investigation of dieback on Parkinsonia aculeata. Naomi Diplock, Vic Galea, Rieks van Klinken and Alan Wearing

585

Evaluation of plant disease for control of alligator weed in Australia. Ross L. Gilbert, Geoff M. Gurr, Michael J. Priest and Sharon Nielsen

588

Current status of research on potential biological control agents for Nassella neesiana and Nassella trichotoma (Poaceae) in Australia. Freda E. Anderson, Marina L. Díaz and David A. McLaren

591

Retrospective host testing of Aconophora compressa; reproduction and survival on the target weed, Lantana camara and non-target species. Andrew G. Manners, Gimme H. Walter, William A. Palmer, K. Dhileepan and Graeme T. Hastwell

595

Biological control of cat’s claw creeper (Macfadyena unguis-cati): the potential of the leaf-tying pyralid moth (Hypocosmia pyrochroma). Elizabeth L. Snow, Michelle A. Rafter, Jayd McCarthy, Wilmot Senaratne, Mariano Treviño and Kunjithapatham Dhileepan

599

The use of models in long-term post-release biological control evaluation. Nikki M. Sims, Yvonne M. Buckley, Myron P. Zalucki and Adele Reid

601

Leaf-sucking tingid (Carvalhotingis visenda): a potential biological control agent for cat’s claw creeper (Macfadyena unguis-cati). Mariano Treviño, Elizabeth Snow, Wilmot Seneratne, Cathryn Conrad and Kunjithapatham Dhileepan

605

Genetic variability of wheel cactus (Opuntia robusta H.L.Wendl. ex Pfeiff.) and cochineal (Dactylopius spp.): implications for biological control. Justin C. Williams, Jeanine Baker, Mike A. Keller and John G. Virtue

607

Impact of the rust fungus Puccinia myrsiphylli on the below-ground biomass of bridal creeper. Louise Morin, Adele Reid and Anthony J. Willis

608

What is responsible for the low establishment rates of the South African Crioceris sp. leaf beetle on bridal creeper infestations in Australia? Michael Neave, Louise Morin and Adele Reid

609

WEED ERADICATION

The branched broomrape eradication program in Australia. Philip Warren

610

Defining the distribution of branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa L.) by tracing the movement of potential vectors for the spread of seed. Nick Secomb

614

Sampling for detection of branched broomrape. Ray Correll and Steve Marvanek

618

Sampling challenges in detecting branched broomrape seed bank decline. Anna M. Williams, John G. Virtue, Che DeDear and Tom McInerney

622

Seed bank and seed bank reduction of Orobanche ramosa in South Australia. John Matthews, Darryl Miegel and Dorothee Hayton

626

Potential use of isothiocyanates in branched broomrape eradication. John G. Virtue, Che DeDear, Mark J. Potter and Mary Rieger

629

Planning and undertaking a national delimiting survey for Chromolaena odorata. P. Maher, C. Vanderwoude, J.C. Scanlan, B. Davis and S. Funkhouser

633

Long-term control and eradication of gorse – a model from the West Coast of Tasmania. Andrew Laird and Sandy Leighton

637

Progress towards the eradication of two tropical weeds. Simon J. Brooks and Kylie E. Galway

641

Lobed needle grass: management strategies for a Priority Agricultural Sleeper Weed, National Environmental Alert List weed and State Prohibited Weed in Victoria. Michael Hansford

645

Athel pine in the Northern Territory: a strategic approach to eradication. Chris Brown and Blair Grace

649

Herbicides for the control of branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa). John Matthews, Darryl Miegel and Dorothee Hayton

653

Mineral nutrients affect the production of strigolactones, germination stimulants for root parasitic weeds, by host plants. Kaori Yoneyama, Hitoshi Sekimoto, Yasutomo Takeuchi and Koichi Yoneyama

656

Effects of fluridone and norflurazon on seed conditioning and germination of root parasitic weeds, Orobanche minor, Striga asiatica and S. hermonthica. Dai Kusumoto, Sang Heon Chae, Kaori Yoneyama, Koichi Yoneyama, Takao Yokota and Yasutomo Takeuchi

657

Characterisation of strigolactones, germination stimulants for root parasitic weeds and branching factors for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, produced by various plants. Koichi Yoneyama, Ayman A. Awad, Xie Xiaonan, Dai Kusumoto, Yasutomo Takeuchi, Kaori Yoneyama, Hitoshi Sekimoto, Takao Yokota, Takanori Kashihara, Kohki Akiyama and Hideo Hayashi

658

ECONOMICS OF WEEDS

Predicting the economic benefits and costs of introducing new biological control agents for Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius into New Zealand: how much will biological control of broom harm the New Zealand beekeeping industry? Quentin Paynter, Hugh Gourlay, Paul Peterson, Julia Wilson-Davey and Simon Fowler

659

Control of invasive species: lessons from miconia in Hawaii. Brooks Kaiser, Kimberly Burnett and James Roumasset

663

A bioeconomic framework for assessing the impacts of weeds in Queensland. Tessie Tumaneng-Diete, Jim Binney, Marc Bryant and Phil Maher

667

A matrix model for the management of perennial weeds in the North Queensland rangelands system: application to Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.). Andrew Zull, Oscar Cacho and Roger Lawes

671

Estimating the returns on investment of a Cooperative Research Centre: the case of the Invasive Plants CRC. Randall Jones, Garry Griffith and David Vere

675

WEED RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

Managing weeds in Australian botanical gardens. Roger D. Spencer

679

Serious potential, new and emerging weeds promoted in the horticultural media. Kate Blood

683

Perennial pasture conflicts: is there a way through? Rieks D. van Klinken, Margaret Friedel and Tony Grice

687

‘Weeding’ out high weed risk species from pasture breeding programs: introducing an environmental weed risk management process into the CRC for Plant-Based Management of Dryland Salinity. Lynley Stone

691

Spatial distribution of invading weeds: implications for detectability and management. Art J. Diggle, Marta Monjardino and John Moore

695

A Weed Risk Management system for the Northern Territory. Samantha Setterfield, Alice Beilby, Michael Douglas, John Clarkson, Jane Barratt, Keith Ferdinands, Blair Grace and Laura Wirf

699

Current practice in applying CLIMATE for weed risk assessment in Australia. Leanne Brown, Simon Barry, David Cunningham and Mary Bomford

703

The importance of vegetative seedling traits in distinguishing herbaceous legumes of differing impact in temperate natural ecosystems. Jason Emms, John G. Virtue, Christopher Preston and William D. Bellotti

707

Weed surveillance strategies using models of weed dispersal in landscapes. David Pullar, Mark Kingston and F. Dane Panetta

711

The Australian Exotic Species Database, a CRC for Australian Weed Management project. Roderick P. Randall

715

Invasive potential and competitive ability of the Eurasian herb Centaurea solstitialis L. Gregory Hay, José M. Facelli and F. Dane Panetta

719

Understanding and managing the risk of garden escapes to Australia’s native flora: which future weed candidates are already here? Paul O. Downey and Andreas Glanznig

723

The problem with Lantana montevidensis (creeping lantana). Stephen. B. Johnson and Sydney D. Lisle

727

Something’s bugging butterfly bush in Tasmania. Darren J. Kriticos and Karina J.B. Potter

731

Is Retama raetam (Forsskal) Webb a legitimate alert list species? Jason Emms, John G. Virtue, Christopher Preston and William D. Bellotti

735

Weed risk assessment of the DEH Alert List and other non-native plant species. Jason Weber and F. Dane Panetta

739

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

The Victorian Weed Alert Rapid Response plan: Weed Spotters and the Weed Alert Contact Officers. Neil Smith

743

Public climate of environmental weed management. Glenn Firth

747

A community-based weed detection network: developing a model for application in Australia. S. Jane Morton

751

‘Weed Wipeout’: A computer game about weed management, suited to the changing learning environment. Susanna N. Greig, Brian M. Sindel and Robin S. Jessop

755

A community approach to pest plant control in South Australia’s rangelands. Lorraine J. Edmunds

757

Feral host species limiting the reduction of pesticide use for codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) in the Adelaide Hills. Heidi J. Nicholson, Katrina L. Willing and David A. Creeper

761

How to transport and display weeds safely for public events and training activities. Kate Blood

765

Working together – Integrated Area Wide Management of weeds in the Condamine catchment. Michael Widderick and Penny Hamilton

767

AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN WEEDS

Effects of depth and season on the population dynamics of Cabomba caroliniana in

south-east Queensland. Shon Schooler and Mic Julien

768

Dry lakes and drifting seed-heads: the ecology of fairy grass Lachnagrostis filiformis. Kathleen E. Gosney, Singarayer K. Florentine and Cameron Hurst

772

Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) invasion affects decomposition rates in a northern New Zealand lake. Imogen Bassett, Quentin Paynter and Jacqueline Beggs

776

The key to success: an investigation into oviposition of the salvinia weevil in cool climate regions. Bertie Hennecke and Lesley Postle

780

Alligator weed eradication in Victoria – a developing success story. Lalith Gunasekera, Nigel Ainsworth and Julio Bonilla

784

Review of aquatic weed control methods in New Zealand. William P. Chisholm

787

Distribution and host range of the recently introduced willow sawfly, Nematus oligospilus Förster, on willows (Salix spp.) in south-east Australia. Kyla J. Finlay and Robin J. Adair

791

Sagittaria (Sagittaria graminea Michx.) – a threatening aquatic weed for the Murray-Darling Basin. Tim Nitschke, Roger Baker and Ross Gledhill

795

A survey of Sagittaria spp. (Monocotyledons: Alismataceae) populations throughout the irrigation districts of northern Victoria. Mark Sellwood, Nigel Ainsworth and Jean-Louis Sagliocco

798

Targeting control measures to coincide with vulnerable growth stages of alligator weed. Georgina Kelley and Bertie Hennecke

801

Comparison of plasticity in growth responses to nutrient availability of two invasive species and their non-invasive congeners. Céline Clech-Goods, Shon Schooler, Catherine Lovelock and Susanne Schmidt

802

ENVIRONMENTAL WEED IMPACTS

Biodiversity threatened by weeds in New South Wales. Paul O. Downey and Aaron J. Coutts-Smith

803

Wetlands going under: can invasive grasses be managed? A.C. Grice, D.M. Nicholas, P. Williams and E. Collins

807

Different weeds, different habitats, same effects: exotic grass invasion in tropical woodlands and wetlands. Michael M. Douglas, Samantha A. Setterfield, Ruth A. O’Connor, Keith Ferdinands, Natalie A. Rossiter, Kristine J. Brooks, Ben Ryan and Catherine Parr

811

The impact of exotic grass invasions on nitrogen cycling: a mini-review. Natalie Rossiter, Samantha Setterfield, Michael Douglas, Lindsay Hutley and Garry Cook

815

A preliminary assessment of the impacts of invasive alien plants on ecosystem services in South Africa. Brian W. van Wilgen, David C. Le Maitre, Belinda Reyers, Lucille Schonegevel and David M. Richardson

819

Suppression of native wild rice germination by exotic para grass. Penny A.S. Wurm, Sean M. Bellairs and Beckie Kernich

823

Barrier to restoration: the decomposition rate of bridal creeper’s root system. Peter J. Turner, John K. Scott and Helen Spafford Jacob

827

Reducing weed biomass by burning and grazing can adversely affect frogs. Deborah S. Bower, Leonie E. Valentine, Anthony C. Grice and Lin Schwarzkopf

831

NEW CHEMICALS AND USES

Hotshot* Herbicide: the new standard for control of Fallopia convolvulus in winter cereals in the Northern Grain Region. Christopher O. Love and Robert A. Annetts

835

AXIAL®, a cereal selective graminicide for the control of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) and other major grass weeds. Craig A. Ruchs, Peter J. O’Connell and Peter Boutsalis

838

Predicting herbicide activity to minimise uncertainty. Todd S. Andrews, Richard W. Medd, Remy J. Van de Ven and David I. Pickering

842

Spray adjuvants for woody weed control in plantation forestry in South Australia. Wayne Richardson, Don McGuire and Naomi Grey

846

The effects of water volume and droplet spectrum on herbicide efficacy during the fallow. Gavin Lotz, Vikki Osten, Alison Shields and Glen Wright

850

Hotshot* Herbicide – a new weapon for Lantana camara control. Christopher O. Love and Robert A. Annetts

853

PASTURES AND FORESTRY

Grazier adoption of spray grazing. Mark G. Trotter, Brian M. Sindel, James M. Scott and Ian J. Reeve

857

Interactions between grazing practices and bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia): preliminary results. F. Bebawi, R. Mayer, J. Vitelli and K. Davis

861

Broad acre chemical control for Chilean needle grass infestations. S.K. Gaur, D.A. McLaren, K.L. Butler and J. Bonilla

864

Effect of grazing management and stockclass on Chilean needle grass (Nassella neesiana) seed production. C.J. Grech, D.A. McLaren and B.M. Sindel

868

Germination response to temperature of Phyla canescens (lippia). Matthew J. Macdonald, R.D.B. (Wal) Whalley, Brian M. Sindel, Mic H. Julien and John A. Duggin

872

Chemical, phytochemical and biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. in Pakistan. Arshad Javaid, Rukhsana Bajwa, Sobiya Shafique and Shazia Shafique

876

Efficacy of grubbing is plant size dependent in nassella tussock. Michelle L. Verkaaik, Shona L. Lamoureaux and Graeme W. Bourdôt

880

Outsmarting nassella tussock – answers to common questions based on recent research findings. Shona L. Lamoureaux, Graeme W. Bourdôt and Michelle Verkaaik

883

The effect camels have on the ability of parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata L.) to set seed. John R. McKenzie, Mike J. Pattison, Shane D. Campbell and Joseph S. Vitelli

886

Woody weed control using metsulfuron-methyl and glyphosate applied by boomless spray technology prior to clear fell of radiata pine (Pinus radiata). Wayne Richardson, Don McGuire and Naomi Grey

890

Dispersal of weed seeds in goat dung. Wagner B. Beskow, Kerry C. Harrington and John Hodgson

894

Effects of shade on seed production of Nassella trichotoma in northern New South Wales. Tieneke F. Trotter, Brian M. Sindel, Robert D. Murison and Robin S. Jessop

895

Weeds of the future? Threats to Australia’s grazing industries by garden plants. Jennifer A. Barker, Rod P. Randall, Tony C. Grice

896

AUTHORS’ INDEX

897

KEYWORD INDEX

900