Bush invaders of south-east Australia
Bush invaders of south-east Australia: a guide to the identification and control of environmental weeds in south-east Australia

By Adam Muyt


Published in 2001 by R.G. and F.J. Richardson, colour photographs, soft cover, section sewn, 304 pages


Price $A59.95 plus $A13.50 postage within Australia [up to 3 kg], overseas postage please request a quote


ISBN 0958743975 or ISBN 9780958743976

  • Description
  • About the author
  • Table of contents
  • Species list

Bush Invaders of south-east Australia is a field guide for anyone who loves and cares about the Australian bush. Covering all of Victoria, Tasmania, the ACT and much of South Australia and New South Wales, it allows the reader to identify the most serious environmental weeds in the region and offers comprehensive details on their control and removal.


This book is divided into two sections. The first defines the problems environmental weeds pose to the region's indigenous flora and fauna and details the principles and practices underlying their management and control. Information is provided about the main methods for controlling invasive plants including herbicide treatments, manual removal, woody weed control methods, fire, slashing, biological control and competition strategies.


The second section comprises 93 environmental weed descriptions covering over 150 species, subspecies, varieties and hybrids. Each description presents diagnostic characteristics, ecological and biological information, specific control techniques as well as notes on indigenous species likely to be mistaken for the weed. As an identification aid colour photographs accompany each description.


'Adam Muyt in Bush Invaders of south-east Australia has created a landmark in the weed literature... He shows us how to deal with invading weeds at strategic and individual species levels... Bush Invaders will become indispensable'. Geoff W. Carr, Ecology Australia (taken from the Foreword).


'...an excellent book that everyone involved with environmental weed invasions should obtain ...Highly recommended.' Ian Faithfull, DNRE (For a full review see Under Control No. 17 September 2001).


The production of this book was supported by the Weed Society of Victoria.


About the author


Adam Muyt was born in Sydney in 1962 and moved to Melbourne in 1982. A growing appreciation for both gardening and the bush led him to undertake studies in horticulture and bushland management. Since 1990 he has been involved in a range of bushland conservation and restoration projects around Melbourne with organizations including the Merri Creek Management Committee, Yarra Bend Park Trust, City of Broadmeadows and City of Hume. This is his first book.


Adam published his second book 'Maroon & Blue - Recollections and Tales of the Fitzroy Football Club' in May 2006.


Table of contents






The environmental weed problem (pages 1-12)

Managing environmental weeds (pages 13-18)

Environmental weed controls (pages 19-48): Manual removal, Herbicide control, Woody weed treatments - Drill-Fill/Cut-Paint/Frilling/ Stem-Scrape/Ringbarking, Fire, Slashing and mowing treatments, Biological control, Grazing, Cultivation, Scalping, Mulches and smothering treatments, Solarization, Competition strategies and practices

Environmental weed identification guide (pages 49-272): Grasses, Other narrowleaf herbs, Broadleaf herbs, Climbers and creeper, Shrubs, Trees, Aquatics

Eighty other invasive species of natural ecosystems in south-east Australia



Plant names index


Species in bold indicate major plant entries and species listed beneath these are either similar or may be confused with the major entry.


GRASSES and grass like species

Anthoxanthum odoratum - Sweet Vernal Grass
   Anthoxanthum aristatum Annual Vernal Grass
   Deyeuxia spp.
   Dichelachne spp. Plumegrasses
   Hierochloe spp. Holygrasses
   Microlaena stipoides Weeping Grass
Briza maxima - Quaking Grass
   Briza minor Lesser Quaking Grass
Cortaderia spp. - Pampas Grasses
Cortaderia jubata Pink Pampas Grass
Cortaderia richardii New Zealand Pampas Grass
Cortaderia selloana Common Pampas Grass
Carex spp. Sedges
   Gahnia spp. Sawsedges
Cynodon dactylon - Couch
Dactylis glomerata - Cocksfoot
Ehrharta calycina - Perennial Veldgrass
Ehrharta villosa Pyp Grass
Ehrharta erecta - Panic Veldgrass
Entolasia spp.
   Microlaena stipoides Weeping Grass
   Setaria spp.
Ehrharta longiflora - Annual Veldgrass
Eragrostis curvula - African Lovegrass
Poa spp. Tussock Grasses
Nassella neesiana - Chilean Needlegrass
Achnatherum brachychaetum Narrow Kernel Espartillo
   Achnatherum caudatum Broad Kernel Espartillo
   Austrostipa spp. Speargrasses
   Jarava plumosa Plumerillo
   Nassella charruana Lobed Needlegrass
   Nassella hyalina Cane Needlegrass
   Nassella leucotricha Texas Needlegrass
   Nassella megapotamia Short-spined Needlegrass
   Piptochaetium montevidense Uruguayan Ricegrass
Nassella trichotoma - Serrated Tussock
Austrostipa elegantissima Feather Speargrass
   Austrostipa spp. Speargrasses
Nassella tenuissima Mexican Feather Grass
   Poa spp. Tussock Grasses
Paspalum dilatatum - Paspalum
Pennisetum clandestinum - Kikuyu
Phalaris aquatica - Phalaris
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary Grass
   Phalaris canariensis Canary Grass
   Phalaris coerulescens Blue Canary Grass
   Phalaris minor Lesser Canary Grass
   Phalaris paradoxa Paradoxa Grass
Stenotaphrum secundatum - Buffalo Grass



Allium triquetrum - Angled Onion
Nothoscordum gracile False Onion Weed
Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora - Montbretia
Crocosmia aurea
    Crocosmia pottsii
Freesia hybrid - Freesia
Freesia alba
    Freesia leichtlinii
Monadenia bracteata - Monadenia
Microtis spp. Onion-orchids
   Prasophyllum spp. Leek-orchids
Moraea spp. - Cape Tulips
Moraea flaccida One-leaf Cape Tulip
Moraea miniata Two-leaf Cape Tulip
Moraea ochroleuca Cape Tulip
Sparaxis spp. - Harlequin Flowers
Sparaxis bulbifera Harlequin Flower
Sparaxis tricolor Tricolour Harlequin Flower
Watsonia meriana var. bulbillifera - Bulbil Watsonia
Chasmanthe floribunda African Cornflag



Cynara cardunculus - Artichoke Thistle
Echium plantagineum - Paterson’s Curse
Echium vulgare Viper’s Bugloss
Foeniculum vulgare - Fennel
Conium maculatum  - St. John’s Wort
Hypericum calycinum Rose-of-Sharon
   Hypericum gramineum Small St. John’s Wort
   Hypericum humifusum Trailing St. John’s Wort
   Hypericum japonicum Matted St. John’s Wort
   Hypericum tetrapterum St. Peter’s Wort
   Hypericum triquetrifolium Tangled Hypericum
Oxalis pes-caprae - Soursob
Oxalis purpurea Large-flowered Wood Sorrel
Senecio jacobaea - Ragwort
Senecio pterophorus African Daisy



Acetosa sagittata - Rambling Dock
Calystegia marginata
    Calystegia sepium Greater Bindweed
Anredera cordifolia - Madeira Vine
Araujia sericifera - Moth Plant
Marsdenia rostrata Common Milkvine
   Parsonia spp. Silkpods
   Tweedia coerulea syn. Oxypetalum coeruleum
Asparagus spp. - Asparagus Ferns
Asparagus aethiopicus Asparagus Fern
Asparagus declinatus Bridal Veil Creeper
Asparagus plumosus Climbing Asparagus Fern
Asparagus scandens Asparagus Fern
   Asparagus virgatus Asparagus Fern
Asparagus asparagoides - Bridal Creeper
Cardiospermum grandiflorum - Balloon Vine
Cardiospermum halicacabum var. halicacabum Small Balloon Vine
   Cayratia clematidea Slender Grape
Clematis vitalba - Old Man’s Beard
Clematis aristata Mountain Clematis
   Clematis flammula Fragrant Clematis
   Clematis glycinoides Headache Vine
Delairea odorata - Cape Ivy
Senecio angulatus Creeping Groundsel
Dipogon lignosus - Dolichos Pea
Hedera helix - English Ivy
Ipomoea spp. - Morning Glory
Calystegia spp. Bindweeds
Ipomoea cairica Coastal Morning Glory
Ipomoea indica Blue Morning Glory
Ipomoea pes-caprae subsp. brasiliensis Beach Morning Glory
   Ipomoea purpurea Common Morning Glory
Lathyrus tingitanus - Tangier Pea
Lathyrus angulatus Angular Pea
   Lathyrus latifolius Everlasting Pea
   Lathyrus odoratus Sweet Pea
Macfadyena unguis-cati - Cat’s Claw Creeper
Passiflora mollissima - Banana Passionfruit
Passiflora cinnabarina Red Passionflower
   Passiflora herbertiana Native Passionfruit
Sollya heterophylla - Bluebell Creeper
Billardiera spp. Apple-berries
Tradescantia fluminensis - Tradescantia
Commelina cyanea Scurvy Weed
Vinca major - Blue Periwinkle
Vinca minor Lesser Periwinkle



Acacia longifolia var. longifolia - Sallow Wattle
Acacia longifolia var. sophorae Coast Wattle
Acacia saligna - Golden Wreath Wattle
Acacia pycnantha Golden Wattle
Cestrum parqui - Green Cestrum
Cestrum elegans Red Cestrum
Chamaecytisus proliferus - Tree Lucerne
Chrysanthemoides monilifera Bitou Bush/Boneseed
Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera Boneseed
Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata Bitou Bush
Goodenia ovata Hop Goodenia
Coprosma repens - Mirror Bush
Coprosma robusta Karamu
Cotoneaster glaucophyllus - Large-leaf Cotoneaster
Cotoneaster franchetii Grey Cotoneaster
   Cotoneaster pannosus Silver-leaf Cotoneaster
   Pomaderris spp.
   Spyridium parvifolium Dusty Miller
Crataegus monogyna - Hawthorn
Crataegus × sinaica Azzarola
Cytisus scoparius subsp. scoparius - English Broom
Cytisus multiflorus White Spanish Broom
   Viminaria juncea Golden Spray
Erica lusitanica - Spanish Heath
Erica andromediflora
    Calluna vulgaris Heather
   Erica arborea Tree Heath
   Erica baccans Berry-flowered Heath
   Erica caffra
    Epacris impressa Common Heath
   Erica melanthera Heath
   Erica quadrangularis Angled Heath
   Erica scoparia Besom Heath
   Erica × willmorei
    Leucopogon spp. Beard-heaths
   Lissanthe strigosa Peach Heath
   Monotoca spp.
Fuchsia magellanica - Fuchsia
Genista spp. - Brooms
Calicotome spinosa Spiny Broom
Genista linifolia Flax-leaf Broom
Genista monspessulana Montpellier Broom
Genista stenopetala Madeira Broom
   Goodia lotifolia Golden Tip
   Goodia medicaginea Golden Tip
Hypericum androsaemum - Tutsan
Hypericum grandifolium
Hypericum tetrapterum
St. Peter’s Wort
Lantana camara - Lantana
Lantana montevidensis Creeping Lantana
   Trema tomentosa var. viridis Native Peach
Lavandula stoechas - Topped Lavender
Leycesteria formosa - Himalayan Honeysuckle
Ligustrum spp. - Privets
Acmena smithii Lilly Pilly
   Backhousia myrtifolia Grey Myrtle
   Ceratopetalum apetalum Coachwood
   Glochidion ferdinandi Cheese Tree
   Hedycarya angustifolia Native Mulberry
Ligustrum lucidum Large-leaf Privet
Ligustrum sinense Small-leaf Privet
Ligustrum vulgare European Privet
   Morinda jasminoides Morinda
   Notelaea spp. Mock Olives
   Pittosporum undulatum Sweet Pittosporum
Lonicera japonica - Japanese Honeysuckle
Lycium ferocissimum - African Boxthorn
Lycium afrum Kaffir Boxthorn
   Lycium australe Australian Boxthorn
   Lycium barbarum Chinese Boxthorn
   Nitraria billardieri Nitrebush
Ochna serrulata - Ochna
Opuntia spp. - Cactus Pears
Opuntia aurantiaca Tiger Pear
Opuntia monacantha Drooping Prickly Pear
Opuntia stricta Common Prickly Pear
Paraserianthes lophantha  - Cape Wattle
Polygala myrtifolia - Myrtle-leaf Milkwort
Leptospermum laevigatum Coast Teatree
   Leucopogon parviflorus Coast Beard-heath
   Polygala virgata Broom Milkwort
   Polygala × dalmaisiana
    Polygala myrtifolia var. grandifolia
Psoralea pinnata - Blue Psoralea
Pyracantha angustifolia - Orange Firethorn
Pyracantha crenulata Red Firethorn
   Pyracantha fortuneana Broad-leaf Firethorn
   Pyracantha rogersiana Firethorn
Rhamnus alaternus - Buckthorn
Adriana quadripartia Coast Bitterbush
   Alyxia buxifolia Sea Box
Ricinus communis - Castor Oil Plant
Rosa rubiginosa - Sweet Briar
Rosa canina Dog Rose
Rubus fruticosus spp. agg. - Blackberry
Rubus moluccanus Native Bramble
   Rubus parvifolius Native Bramble
   Rubus rosifolius Native Bramble
Senna pendula var. glabrata - Easter Cassia
Breynia oblongifolia Coffee Bush
   Senna corymbosa
    Senna didymobotrya Candelabra Tree
   Senna multiglandulosa Downy Senna
   Senna septemtrionalis
Ulex europaeus - Gorse



Acacia baileyana - Cootamundra Wattle
Acacia dealbata Silver Wattle
   Acacia decurrens Early Black Wattle
   Acacia elata Mountain Cedar Wattle
Acer pseudoplatanus - Sycamore
Acer negundo Box Elder
   Acer palmatum Japanese Maple
Cinnamomum camphora - Camphor Laurel
Cinnamomum oliveri
    Cryptocarya glaucescens
    Endiandra sieberi
    Neolitsea australiensis
    Neolitsea dealbata
Eucalyptus cladocalyx - Sugar Gum
Corymbia citriodora Lemon-scented Gum
   Corymbia maculata Spotted Gum
   Eucalyptus botryoides Bangalay
   Eucalyptus cornuta Yate
   Eucalyptus globulus Blue Gum
Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. angustifolia - Desert Ash
Polyscias sambucifolia Panax Elderberry
   Sambucus spp. Elderberries
Ilex aquifolium - Holly
Alchornea ilicifolia Native Holly
   Lomatia fraseri Tree Lomatia
   Lomatia ilicifolia Holly Lomatia
Olea europaea - Olive
Alectryon oleifolius Boonaree
   Correa spp.
   Elaeocarpus spp. Oliveberries
   Myoporum montanum Water-bush
   Notelaea spp. Mock Olives
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata African Olive
Olea europaea subsp. europaea Common Olive
Phebalium spp.
   Pittosporum bicolor Banyalla
Pinus spp. - Pines
Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia Lodgepole Pine
Pinus halepensis Aleppo Pine
Pinus nigra var. corsicana Corsican Pine
Pinus pinaster Maritime Pine
Pinus pinea Stone Pine
   Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa Pine
Pinus radiata Radiata Pine
Pittosporum undulatum - Sweet Pittosporum
Pittosporum bicolor Banyalla
   Rapanaea howittiana Muttonwood
Salix spp. - Willows
Salix alba var. alba White Willow
   Salix alba var. vitellina Golden Willow
   Salix babylonica Weeping Willow
Salix cinerea subsp. cinerea Grey Sallow
Salix cinerea subsp. oleifolia Rusty Sallow
Salix fragilis Crack Willow
Salix matsudana Tortured Willow
Salix nigra Black Willow
Salix × rubens Basket Willow
Schinus molle - Pepper Tree



Alternanthera philoxeroides - Alligator Weed
Alternanthera angustifolia Narrowleaf Joyweed
   Alternanthera denticulata Calico Plant
   Alternanthera nana Hairy Joyweed
   Alternanthera nodiflora Common Joyweed
   Alternanthera pungens Khaki Weed
   Alternanthera sessilis Mukunu-wenna
Eichhornia crassipes - Water Hyacinth
Ludwigia peruviana - Ludwigia
Ludwigia palustris Marsh Ludwigia
   Ludwigia peploides subsp. montevidensis Water Primrose
Salvinia molesta - Salvinia
Spartina spp. Spartinas
   Phragmites australis Common Reed
   Spartina alterniflora Smooth Cordgrass
Spartina anglica Ricegrass
Spartina ×townsendii Townsend’s Cordgrass
Undaria pinnatifida - Japanese Kelp
Ecklonia radiata Brown Kelp