IS THAT PLANT POISONOUS
Is that plant poisonous? An Australian field guide for livestock, pets and people

By R.C.H. Shepherd

 

Published in June 2010 by R.G. and F.J. Richardson, full colour, gatefold cover, 264 pages

 

Price $A55.00 plus $A13.50 postage within Australia [up to 3 kg], overseas postage please request a quote

ISBN 9780980388527

 
  • Description
  • About the author
  • Table of contents

There are a large number of plants found on farms and bush blocks, along roadsides, in waste places and in gardens that are considered poisonous to livestock, domestic pets and people.

IS THAT PLANT POISONOUS? will help you become more aware and familiar with these plants, most of which are of a weedy nature. It has been written for everyone, but especially for farmers, gardeners, bush walkers, pet owners, veterinary surgeons and parents.

The book uses easy-to-understand language with colour photographs to aid plant identification. It details who the plant is poisonous to, which parts of the plant are poisonous and the toxins that are likely to be encountered, as well as symptoms of poisoning. Symptoms are also listed according to plant species and animal in a comprehensive and informative appendix.

All the plants in this book are found in Australia.

 

 

About the author

Ros Shepherd gained her Master of Science degree from The University of Queensland in 1966 and Master of Agricultural Science degree from The University of Melbourne in 1984. She spent many years as a Senior Entomologist at the Keith Turnbull Research Institute in Frankston, Victoria working on the biological control of pest plants and animals, which included research in South Africa.

Ros has been actively involved in the Weed Society of Victoria and Council of Australasian Weed Societies for many years. Her other recent publications include The Biology of Australian Weeds series, Plants of Importance to Australia: a Checklist, Pretty but Poisonous and Weeds of the South-East.

She is a keen gardener and bush walker and now spends much of her time travelling, in Australia and around the world, photographing plants.

 

 

Table of contents

FOREWORD

viii

INTRODUCTION

Plants included in this book

ix

About the plants

ix

The layout

x

How does poisoning occur?

xi

Identifying plants

xii

If poisoning occurs

xiii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

xiv

GUIDE TO POISONOUS PLANTS

Identification, toxins and symptoms of poisoning

Agavaceae

Agave americana var. picta

century plant

3

Agave sisalana

sisal hemp

4

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus hybridus

slim amaranth

5

Amaranthus retroflexus

redroot amaranth

6

Amaranthus spinosus

needle burr

7

Gomphrena celosioides

gomphrena weed

8

Anacardiaceae

Schinus molle

pepper tree

9

Apiaceae

Ammi majus

bishop’s weed

10

Berula erecta

water parsnip

11

Conium maculatum

hemlock

12

Trachymene glaucifolia

wild parsnip

13

Apocynaceae

Alstonia constricta

bitter bark

14

Cascabela thevetia

yellow oleander

15

Catharanthus roseus

pink periwinkle

16

Nerium oleander

oleander

17

Vinca major

blue periwinkle

18

Araceae

Alocasia brisbanensis

giant taro

19

Arum italicum

Italian arum

20

Dieffenbachia maculate

spotted dumbcane

21

Zantedeschia aethiopica

arum lily

22

Araliaceae

Hedera helix

English ivy

23

Asclepiadaceae

Araujia sericifera

moth plant

24

Asclepias curassavica

redhead cotton bush

25

Calotropis procera

calotrope

26

Cryptostegia grandiflora

rubber vine

27

Gomphocarpus fruticosus

swan plant

28

Marsdenia rostrate

milk vine

29

Sarcostemma australe

caustic vine

30

Asteraceae

Acanthospermum hispidum

star burr

31

Ageratina adenophora

Crofton weed

32

Arctotheca calendula

capeweed

33

Baccharis halimifolia

groundsel bush

34

Centaurea melitensis

Maltese cockspur

35

Centaurea solstitialis

St Barnaby’s thistle

36

Delairea odorata

ivy groundsel

37

Dittrichia graveolens

stinkwort

38

Hypochaeris radicata

flatweed

39

Osteospermum ecklonis

South African daisy

40

Parthenium hysterophorus

parthenium weed

41

Rhaponticum repens

creeping knapweed

42

Senecio jacobaea

ragwort

43

Senecio linearifolius

common fireweed

44

Senecio madagascariensis

fireweed

45

Senecio pinnatifolius

variable groundsel

46

Senecio pterophorus

African daisy

47

Silybum marianum

variegated thistle

48

Verbesina encelioides

crownbeard

49

Wedelia asperrima

sunflower daisy

50

Xanthium strumarium

Noogoora burr

50

Azioaceae

Trianthema portulacastrum

giant pigweed

52

Basellaceae

Anredera cordifolia

Madeira vine

53

Boraginaceae

Amsinckia calycina

hairy fiddleneck

54

Echium plantagineum

Paterson’s curse, salvation Jane

55

Heliotropium amplexicaule

blue heliotrope, bluetop

56

Heliotropium europaeum

common heliotrope

57

Heliotropium supinum

prostrate heliotrope

58

Symphytum officinale

comfrey

59

Trichodesma zeylanicum

camel bush

60

Brassicaceae

Brassica napus

rape

61

Raphanus raphanistrum

wild radish

62

Campanulaceae

Isotoma axillaris

rock isotome

63

Caprifoliaceae

Sambucus gaudichaudiana

native elderberry

64

Caryophyllaceae

Agrostemma githago

corn cockle

65

Chenopodiaceae

Chenopodium album

fat hen

66

Chenopodium murale

nettle-leaf goosefoot

67

Dysphania glomulifera

red crumbweed

68

Clusiaceae

Hypericum androsaemum

tutsan

69

Hypericum perforatum

St John’s wort

70

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea Muelleri

poison morning glory

71

Ipomoea sp. aff. calobra

weir vine

72

Crassulaceae

Bryophyllum daigremontianum

mother of millions

73

Bryophyllum delagoense

mother of millions

74

Bryophyllum × houghtonii

hybrid mother of millions

75

Bryophyllum pinnatum

resurrection plant

76

Cucurbitaceae

Citrullus colocynthis

colocynth

77

Cucumis myriocarpus

prickly paddy melon

78

Ecballium elaterium

squirting cucumber

79

Dennstaedtiaceae

Pteridium esculentum

bracken

80

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia characias subsp. wulfenii

wulfen spurge

81

Euphorbia dallachyana

caustic weed

82

Euphorbia drummondii

caustic weed

82

Euphorbia lathyrism

caper spurge

84

Euphorbia peplus

petty spurge

85

Jatropha curcas

physic nut

86

Jatropha gossypiifolia

bellyache bush

87

Ricinus communis

castor oil plant

88

Fabaceae

Abrus precatorius

crab’s eye

90

Castanospermum australe

black bean

91

Crotalaria crispate

Kimberley horse poison

92

Crotalaria medicaginea

trefoil rattlepod

93

Crotalaria novae-hollandiae

New Holland rattlepod

94

Crotalaria pallida

streaked rattlepod

95

Crotalaria retusa

wedge-leaf rattlepod

96

Cytisus scoparius

English broom

97

Gastrolobium grandiflorum

wallflower poison

98

Indigofera linnaei

Birdsville indigo

99

Lotus australis

austral trefoil

100

Lupinus albus

white lupin

101

Lupinus angustifolius

narrow-leaf lupin

102

Medicago sativa

lucerne

103

Melilotus albus

Bokhara clover, white melilot

104

Robinia pseudoacacia

black locust, false acacia

105

Spartium junceum

Spanish broom

106

Swainsona canescens

grey Swainson pea

107

Swainsona galegifolia

smooth Darling pea

108

Swainsona greyana

hairy Darling pea

109

Trifolium repens

white clover

110

Vicia villosa

woolly-pod vetch

111

Iridaceae

Diplarrena moraea

butterfly flag

112

Iris pseudacorus

yellow flag

113

Moraea flaccida

one-leaf Cape tulip

114

Moraea setifolia

thread iris

115

Romulea rosea var. australis

onion grass

116

Lamiaceae

Lamium amplexicaule

henbit

117

Salvia reflexa

mintweed

118

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum camphora

camphor laurel

119

Liliaceae

Agapanthus praecox subsp. orientalis

agapanthus

120

Alstroemeria aurea

yellow alstromeria

121

Amaryllis belladonna

belladonna lily

122

Bulbine bulbosa

native leek

123

Dianella caerulea

blue flax lily

124

Dianella revoluta var. revolute

blue flax lily

125

Gloriosa superba

glory lily

126

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

daffodil

127

Ornithogalum thyrsoides

chincherinchee

128

Stypandra glauca

blindgrass

129

Trachyandra divaricate

dune onion weed

130

Linaceae

Linum usitatissimum

linseed, flax

131

Lythraceae

Lythrum hyssopifolia

lesser loosestrife

132

Malvaceae

Malva parviflora

small-flowered mallow

133

Marsileaceae

Marsilea drummondii

commom nardoo

134

Meliaceae

Melia azedarach var. australasica

white cedar

135

Melianthaceae

Melianthus comosus

tufted honey flower

136

Melianthus major

Cape honey flower

137

Mimosaceae

Acacia binervia

coast myall

138

Acacia georginae

Georgina gidgee

138

Myoporaceae

Eremophila deserti

Ellangowan poison bush

140

Eremophila maculate

spotted fuchsia bush

141

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus cladocalyx

sugar gum

142

Eucalyptus viminalis

ribbon gum, manna gum

143

Oleaceae

Ligustrum lucidum

broad-leaf privet

144

Ligustrum ovalifolium

oval-leaf privet

145

Ligustrum sinense

Chinese privet

145

Ligustrum vulgare

common privet

146

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis pes-caprae

soursob

147

Papaveraceae

Argemone ochroleuca

Mexican poppy

148

Eschscholzia californica

California poppy

149

Papaver rhoeas

field poppy

150

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca octandra

inkweed

151

Polygonaceae

Acetosella vulgaris

sheep sorrel

152

Emex australis

spiny emex

153

Rumex crispus

curled dock

154

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea

pigweed

156

Primulaceae

Anagallis arvensis

scarlet pimpernel

157

Ranunculaceae

Adonis macrocarpa

pheasant’s eye

158

Ranunculus muricatus

sharp-fruited buttercup

159

Ranunculus repens

creeping buttercup

160

Ranunculus sceleratus

celery-leaf buttercup

161

Rosaceae

Cotoneaster franchetii

grey cotoneaster

162

Cotoneaster glaucophyllus

large-leaf cotoneaster

162

Cotoneaster horizontalis

prostate cotoneaster

163

Cotoneaster pannosus

silver-leaf cotoneaster

164

Eriobotrya japonica

loquat

165

Prunus laurocerasus

cherry laurel

166

Rutaceae

Zieria arborescens

stinkwood

167

Sapindaceae

Alectryon oleifolius

bullocky bush

168

Atalaya hemiglauca

whitewood

169

Scrophulariaceae

Digitalis purpurea

foxglove

170

Simaroubaceae

Ailanthus altissima

tree of heaven

171

Solanaceae

Cestrum aurantiacum

orange cestrum

172

Cestrum elegans

red cestrum

173

Cestrum nocturnum

lady of the night

174

Cestrum parqui

green cestrum

175

Datura ferox fierce

thornapple

176

Datura inoxia downy

thornapple

177

Datura metel

Hindu thornapple

178

Datura stramonium

common thornapple

179

Duboisia hopwoodii

pituri

180

Duboisia leichhardtii

corkwood

181

Duboisia myoporoides

Australian corkwood

182

Nicotiana glauca

tree tobacco

183

Nicotiana suaveolens

austral tobacco

184

Solanum aviculare

kangaroo apple

185

Solanum mauritianum

wild tobacco tree

187

Solanum nigrum blackberry

nightshade

188

Solanum pseudocapsicum

Madeira winter cherry

189

Solanum rostratum

buffalo burr

190

Solanum sturtianum

Thargomindah nightshade

191

Thymelaeaceae

Pimelea trichostachya

flaxweed

192

Ulmaceae

Trema tomentose

poison peach

193

Urticaceae

Parietaria judaica

wall pellitory

194

Urtica dioica

stinging nettle

195

Urtica incisa

scrub nettle

196

Urtica urens

small nettle

196

Verbenaceae

Duranta erecta

duranta

197

Lantana camara

lantana

198

Lantana montevidensis

creeping lantana

199

Zygophyllaceae

Tribulus terrestris

caltrop

200

APPENDIX

Common symptoms of poisoning according to plant species and animal

PLANT GLOSSARY

226

MEDICAL GLOSSARY

230

REFERENCES

233

PLANT NAME INDEX

244